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Records of the Seventy-seventh 
(East Middlesex) 

Henry Herriott Woollright 

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Field-Marshal H.R.H. The Duke of Cambridge, 
K.G., G.C.B., Ktc. 

Colon el-in-Chikf, 

The Dlke of Cambridge's Own (Middlesex Regiment). 


Front the Portrait by HOLL, by permission of Messrs. Henry Graves & Co.^ 

owners of the CoPyrifiht. 

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or TMB 







CompiUd from Official and oihir sources, 






Wklungton Works, Aldershot, 

. / AND 

S\ Nelson Works, Portsmouth. 


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"the new york^ \ 


I ' 


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The greater portion of this short account of the services 
of the Seventy-seventh has been taken from the official 
records of the Regiment, of which the chapters des- 
cribing the Crimean and South African Campaigns 
have been given in fully except some unimportant 
returns, etc.| which have been omitted from the former. 

Considerable additions, however, have been made to 
the description of the earlier portion of the Regiment's 
history given in the official records, and amongst other 
works, Wilk's "History of Mysore, ** Malleson's "Ser- 
ingapatam," Wilson's "Madras Army" (for the early 
Indian Campaigns), Robinson's " Life of Sir Thomas 
Picton," Grattan's Reminiscences, and Colonel Napier's 
History (for the Peninsular period), have been drawn 
upon to give a fuller account of the Regiment's services 
between 1790 and 1814. 

It is hoped, therefore, that these pages will be found to 
contain a £airly complete account of the share taken by 
the Seventy-seventh in the different campaigns in which 
it has served since its formation in 1787. 

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Introduction xiii 


Formation of the Regiment— Service in India. 

The Regiment raised by Colonel Marsh and embodied at Dover-* 
Embarks for Bombay— Mysore War— Capture of Cannanore 
—Siege of Seringapatam— The Regiment returns to Bombay- 
Embarks again for the Malabar Coast— At Calicut— Capture 
of Cochin and Colombo— Expedition in Cotiote— Renewal of 
the war with Mysore— A Bombay force assembled at 
Cannanore— Advance up the Ghauts— Action at Seedaseer— 
Siege and Capture of Seringapatam— The Regiment returns 
to the coast— Takes part in an expedition in South Canara— 
Is transferred to the Madras Establishment and marches to 
Chitteldroog— Expedition in Bullum. The Regiment serves 
under Colonel Wellesley in the Campaign against Dhoondiah 
Waugh— Serves in Cotiote and Wynaad— Operations against 
the Polygars- Storming of Panjalamcoorchy- Further service 
in Bullum— The Regiment returns to Malabar, and is again 
employed in Cotiote and Wynaad— Moves to Goa— Trans- 
ferred from the Madras Establishment— Returns to Bombay- 
Embarks for England ... i 


1807— 1811. 

The Regiment quartered at Chatham and augmented by volun- 
teers from the Militia— Moves to Lincoln— To Winchester- 
Employed in Lord Chatham's expedition to the Scheldt- 
Lands in the Island of Walcheren— Capture of Flushing- 

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The formation of the Seventy-seventh Regiment 
1787. was ordered by a letter of service issued on the 

1 2th October, 1787, to *Colonel James Marsh, of 
the Forty-third, who had been selected for the command of 
the new regiment The establishment was fixed at 10 service 
companies of four officers, three sergeants, two drummers, 
and seventy-five rank and file each ; and a recruiting com- 
pany of four officers, four drummers, and thirty-five rank 
and file. The regimental staff officers were an adjutant; 
quartermaster, surgeon, and two surgeon's mates. At this 
time the colonel,, lieutenant-colonel, and major were ob- 
tains of companies. The total establishment of officers was 
thus forty-nine, of which twenty (the major, four captains, 
and fifteen subalterns) were to be nominated by the East 
India Company, and not appointed till after the regiment's 
arrival in India. 

The following were gazetted to the regiment before the 
end of 1787: — 

Colonel James Marsh. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Tames Balfour. 

Captain Bulstrode Whitelocke. 

Captain James Dunlop. 

Captain John Montresor. 

Captain Lord Charles Somerset 

Captain Lieutenant Wm. Fred. Spry. 

Lieutenant Lauchlan M'Quarrie. 

Lieutenant Hugh Trevor. 

Lieutenant Joseph Owen. 

* Colonel Marsh served for upwards of twenty years with the 46th Regiment (of 
whioh he was Adjutant from 1753 to If ST), before being appointed Ueut.-Colooel of the 
43rd in August, 1776. Heservedwiththelatter inthe Amerioan War,andwaapre8eiitat 
the action on Rhode Island in 1778, when **the spirited exertions of the 43rd under 
Colonel Marsh," were mentioned by the general commanding in his despatch. la 
1786. when the 43rd were at Windsor, he was highly complimented by the King oo the 
condition of his regiment. He was promoted M«ior-General in 1796, and Geneiml in 1803. 
He died in 1804. 

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Lieutenant Thomas Weston. 
Lieutenant L. H. Dalrymple. 
Lieutenant Archibald CampbelL 
Lieutenant Hon. G. Cochrane. 
Lieutenant John Shaw. 
Lieutenant W. Atwood Oliver. 
Lieutenant St John Fancourt 
Lieutenant Charles Erskine. 
Ensign James BlackwelL 
Ensign John Taite. 
Ensign R. B. CampbelL 
Ensign Archibald CampbelL 
Ensign John A. Dick. 
Chaplain James Dalton. 
Adjutant Charles Erskine. 
Quartermaster Charles Stewart 
Surgeon Colin Anderson. 

The uniform of the regiment on its formation was scarlet 
with facings of a light pale yellow or lemon-colour. The 
epaulettes of the officers were of silver and their lapels, 
skiflt pockets, etc, plain without lace. 

Recruits for the regiment were raised generally in the 
three kingdoms,* and were not obtained without consider- 
able difficulty, military service being at that time exceedingly 
unpopular. The regiment however, was sufficiently com- 
plete to proceed on foreign service early in 1788. It was 
first embodied at Dover, under Colonel Marsh, 

1788. who presented it with its first colours, and after 
a short stay there embarked in the Downs for 
India on the 27th March, under the command of Lieut- 
Colonel Dunlop. After a voyage of more than four months 

* The regiment had no territorial title till 1807, when, on returning home from India 
» the Bast Middlesex Regiment. 

B 2 

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it landed at Bombay on the 4th August, and took up its 
quarters there. 

Soon after the regiment's arrival at Bombay the following 
offioeis, who had been nominated by the East India Com^- 
pany, were appointed to complete the establishment:— 

Major Marlborough Parsons Stirling. 
Captain Ecdes Smith. 
Captain Robert Duncansoa 
Captain Charles Gray. 
Lieutenant Creighton Macrae. 
Lieutenant John Campbell 
Lieutenant Geoi^e Collier. 
Lieutenant William Nelsoa 
Lieutenant Charles T. Grant 
Lieutenant John Madeod. 
Lieutenant Roger Bridgewater. 
Lieutenant John M. Cooper. 
Lieutenant John Lawrence. 
Lieutenant Donald Mackenzie. 
Lieutenant Edmund Shuttleworth. 
Lieutenant William Pringle. 
Lieutenant Phillip Anstruther. 
Ensign Charles Stewart 
Ensign Stephen Gillmaa 
Ensign Alexander Gray. 
Ensign Francis Mackay. 
Ensign William Hensmaa 
Ensign William Whitla. 
Ensign John Robins. 

For two years the regiment remained quartered at Bom- 
bay. Peace for the time prevailed in India, but 

17911. in 1790 there came a renewal of the war with 
Tippoo Sultan, Rajah of Mysore, a cruel and 

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ferocious tyrant, and one of the most formidable enemies 
encountered by England in the East The 77th formed 
part of the force despatched from Bombay in November, 
under Major-General Robert Abercromby, the Governor, 
to co-operate with the Madras army in an attack on the 
Rajah's possessions in Malabar. They landed at Tellicherry, 
and on the 14th December marched against Cannanore, a 
place which, after being held for many years by the 
Portuguese, and after them by the Dutch, was now in the 
possession of a lady known as the Bibi of Cannanore, a 
staunch ally of Tippoo. Not much resistance was met with. 
This enemy was soon dislodged with loss from a strong 
position barring the British advance, and the outlying forts, 
Avary and Carly, captured. Fort Angelo and the town fell 
on the 16th, and the following day the Bibi surrendered. 

By the capture of Cannanore the British became masters 
of all Malabar. The Hindoo Nairs welcomed them as 
deliverers from Tippoo's tyranny, but the Mahomedan 
population — the Moplahs— remained hostile, and continued 
to adhere to their co-religionist, the Sultan. 

The following year the Governor-General of 

1791. India (Lord Comwallis) took the field in person 
at the head of the Grand Army destined to 
advance againstTippoo's capital, Seringapatam, from Banga- 
lore, while General Abercromby, with the Bombay army,; 
attacked it from the west The latter, which now comprised 
the 77th, three other European regiments, five battalions of 
Sepoys, and some artillery, left Cannanore in February, and 
were conveyed by water as far as Iliacore, within 26 miles 
of the Poodicherram Ghaut In the ascent of the Ghaut 
great difficulties had to be overcome, and in many places the 
guns had to be dismounted and hauled up precipices by 
ropes and tackle. Fortunately no enemy disputed the 
passage and the Coorgs gave great assistance, otherwise the 

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advance of the army by this route would have been impos- 
sible. The Mysore plateau was at length reached, and, 
pressing on, General Abercromby occupied Periapatam, 44 
miles to the westward of Seringapatam, the enemy evacuat- 
ing the place at his approach. Here bad news was received 
of the Madras army, which through scarcity of provisions 
and the breakdown of its transport had been compelled to 
retire from before Seringapatam almost immediately after its 
arrival there. At the same time, orders came for General 
Abercromby to return to the Malabar Coast He was un- 
doubtedly placed in a critical position by Lord Comwallis's 
retreat, but his retirement from Periapatam seems to 
have been somewhat precipitate. A large portion of the 
baggage fell into the hands of the enemy, and through an 
error on the part of the medical authorities the same fate 
befell an officer and seventeen men in hospital The force^ 
having buried or destroyed all its artillery, retraced its steps 
to the coast without further molestation from the enemy, 
but the abandonment of the remaining tents and baggage 
through the loss of transport animals caused much sickness^ 
and there were few officers or men in this expedition who 
did not suffer in after years from the hardships suffered in 
the retreat 

On reaching the coast the 77th took up its quarters on 
Darmapatnam Island, near Tellicherry, and remained can- 
toned there during the remainder of the monsoon. On the 
20th November it marched, imder the command of Captain 
Bulstrode Whitelocke, to Cannanore, when the Bombay 
army was again concentrated for a fresh campaign. Ample 
supplies had been collected, many being obtained from 
Palghaut, a strong fort of Tippoo's, near Coimbatore, 
recently captured, and now used as a supply dep6t 

Seringapatam was again the objective, and, re-ascending 
the Poodicherram Ghaut, General Abercromby made his first 

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march from the head of this pass towards Mysore 

1702. on the 22nd January, 1792. On the nth Feb- 
ruary, he crossed the River Cavery, and on the 
16th joined the Grand Army, under Lord Comwallis, before 
Seringapatam. Three days later the Bombay army crossed 
to the south side of the river to assist in the attack on the 
western angle of the fortress, and in this exposed position, 
separated by the Cavery from the main army, successfully 
repulsed a severe attack made by the Mysoreans on the 

The siege operations were vigorously carried on, and 
Lord Comwallis calculated on a bre^^ in the walls being 
practicable for assault on the ist March. Tippoo, however, 
saw the futility of further resistance, and accepting the 
terms offered him signed the preliminary articles of peace 
on the 24th February. The principal conditions were the 
cession of half his domains, including Calicut, Coorg, and 
Dindigul, the payment of three crores and three lacs of 
rupees, and the release of all prisoners. The news of the 
peace was received with grief and almost with indignation 
by the British soldiers, who had long cherished the hope of 
liberating with their own hands those of their comrades 
who had survived the horrors of Tippoo's dungeons. 

Hostilities being terminated, the 77th returned to 
Malabar, and arrived on the 13th April at Cannanore, where 
they embarked for Bombay, having lost 281 men killed in' 
action, captured by the enemy, or dead from hardships and 
fatigue in the recent campaigns. 

The regiment arrived at Bombay on the 19th April and 
remained there the next, two and a half years, during which 
time the effects of the preceding campaigns were further 
severely felt in the loss of 321 men. Bombay in those da)7s 
was a small place, not extending beyond the walls of the 
fort, and the close and confined quarters the regiment must 

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have occupied — perhaps in the Castle — no doubt had much 
to do with this great mortaUty. 

On the 20th October, 1794, the 77th again 
17M. embarked for the Malabar Coast, and after 
a voyage of ten days landed at CaUcut, 
where it remained in cantonments for several months. 

The next outbreak of hostilities in Southern India was 
the result of events following the recent Revolution in 
France. The people of Holland, becoming imbued with 
revolutionary principles, had declared themselves a Republic, 
and joined the French in war against Great Britaia This 
news reached India in June, 1795, and expedi- 

1795. tions wer& forthwith planned against the few 
remaining Dutch possessions there. The 77th 

formed part of that against Cochin, the principal Dutch 
settlement on the Malabar Coast, and arrived before it on 
the 27th August The place had been for some time be- 
si^ed by a force under Major Petrie, and only made a brief 
resistance before capitulating. 

The more important Dutch possessions in Ceylon were 

next selected for attack. The 77th had returned to Calicut 

in November, but the following month it marched back to 

Cochin, and embarked there, on the i8th January, 

1796. 1796, in this new expedition. The force, which 
was commanded by Colonel Stuart, of the 72nd, 

landed on the west coast of Ceylon, and on the 4th Feb* 
ruary concentrated at N^;ombo, preparatory to advancing 
on Colombo, 20 miles to the south. The advanced guard, 
consisting of the 77th and three native battalions, amved 
within four miles of Colombo on the 8th, and were joined 
by the main body the following day. 

Some resistance was met with when the force crossed the 
Kelani River on the 12th, but the enemy, consisting of some 
Dutch troops and Malaysi, was soon driven back, and ^e 

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town oi Colombo occupied the same evening. On the 15th 
the fort surrendered, and by the terms of the capitulation 
all the Dutch possessions in the island passed into the hands 
of the British. The Dutch garrison was over 3,000 strong, 
and 360 guns were found in the fort The prize money was 
valued at ;£'30i,ooo. 

The 77th remained in Colombo till the 22nd March, and 
then embarked for Calicut, where it was stationed till the 
following August, when it again marched to Cochin. 

In April, 1797, four companies, under Major 

1797. W. F. Spry, embarked for Tellicherry to join an 
expedition, under Lieut-Colonel James Dunlop, 

of the 77th, against the Rajah of Cotiote. The manner in 
which they conducted themselves is recorded in the Detach- 
ment Orders by Major Lauchlan M'Quarrie at Camp 
Cotiangunj on the 13th May, in which he tendered his 
" warmest and best thanks to all ranks for their gallantry, 
steadiness, zeal, and obedience to orders, and the spirit in 
which they had overcome all difficulties and hardships in 
such an arduous campaign as they had lately been engaged 
upon." At the same time, the " conspicuous intrepidity, cool- 
ness, and gallantry" with which a party under Lieutenant 
Lawrence, 77th Regiment, had dislodged a party of the 
enemy from a house near the Canote River, was highly 
commended On the termination of this expedition the 
detachment rejoined headquarters at Cochin, where the 
regimeDt remained throughout the following )^ear. 

In 1799 the intrigues of Tippoo Sultan with 

1798. the French, who had occupied Egypt with a force 
under Buonaparte and were planning an attack on 

the British possessions in India, brought about another war 
with Mysore. The Bombay Government, as in the previous 
war, furnished a contingent to co-operate from Malabar 
with the main army, under General (afterwards Lord) 

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Harris, assembled at Vellore. This contingent assembled 
at Cannanore under Major-General Stewart, and consisted 
of one European and two native infantry brigades, with 
some artillery and sappers. The 77th, 693 strong, under 
Lieut-Colonel Dunlop, arrived at Cannanore on the 14th 
January, and with the Bombay European Regiment and the 
flank companies of the 7Sth Highlanders formed the Centre 
Brigade. Lieut-Colonel Dunlop was appointed to the 
command of this brigade, and Brevet Lieut-Colonel John 
Montresor (senior major) of the 77th, to that of the Right 
Brigade, the command of the regiment devolving on Major 
Spry. The force, 6,400 strong, marched from Cannanore for 
Coorg by the Poodicherram Ghaut on the 21st February, 
and on the 25th reached the top of the pass, where the 77th 
encamped to await the arrival of stores and provisions and 
protect them on their way up. On the i st March it advanced 
to Seedapore, on the frontiers of Coorg and Mysore (about 
90 miles from Cannanore and 60 from Seringapatam), and 
encamped there with the main body. 

General Stewart had been ordered to take up a defensive 
position on the Coorg frontier and await orders, but the 
thickly wooded nature of the country compelled him to dis- 
perse his troops in several detachments, affording each 
other mutual support as far as possible. Lieut-Colonel 
Montresor, with the Right Brigade, consisting of three bat- 
talions of Bombay sepoys, occupied the height of Seedaseer, 

1 1 miles in advance, which was of the utmost importance, 
being the only point from which signalling communication 
could be maintained with General Harris, then near Banga- 
lore. On the 6th March this advanced post was furiously 
assailed by 12,000 Mysoreans, led by Tippoo in person, who 
had been enabled by the denseness of the surrounding 
jimgle to approach almost unobserved. General Stewart, 
on receiving intelligence of the attack, immediately marched 

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with the 77th and the flank companies of the 7Sth, and 
reached the scene of action at half-past two. The enemy 
had penetrated to the rear of the British position, and by 
occupying the main road to Seedaseer had completely sur- 
romided Colonel Montresor's sepoys, who, after several 
hours' fighting, were exhausted with fatigue and almost at 
the end of their ammunition. However, the vigorous on- 
slaught of the 75th and 77th quickly cleared the Seedaseer 
road, and in half-an-hour they had fought their way through 
to Colonel Montresor, the enemy falling back through the 
woods before them. At twenty minutes past three the 
Mysoreans retreated in all directions and left the British 
troops in possession of the field after an engagement lasting 
nearly six hours. Both British and native troops received 
great credit for their behaviour in this action. Their losses 
amounted to not more than 143 killed and woimded — the 
77th lost a sergeant, drummer, and twelve men — ^while the 
number of Mysoreans kiUed and wounded came to nearly 

General Stewart remained in the neighbourhood of 
Seedapore till the 7th April, when he marched for Seringa- 
patam, and a week later joined General Harris's army, 
engaged in the siege of that fortress. 

The fortress of Seringapatam is situated at the western 
end of an island, about three miles in length and one in 
breadth, formed by two arms of the Cavery River. The 
northern and south-western faces are built on the shore of 
the island and the north-west bastion in the angle opposite 
to where the two branches of the river divide. The river 
was very low at this season of the year, and formed but a 
slight obstacle to the besieging army. 

The point selected for attack was the northern end of the 
south-west face, and the Madras army had taken up its 
position opposite this side of the fortress. The Bombay 

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army crossed to the north side of the river, where batteries 
were to be erected to enfilade the south-west face of the 

These batteries opened fire on the 20th, and told with 
such severe eflfect on the enemy that a vigorous sortie was 
made by the garrison in the early hours of the 22nd, with 
the intention of destroying them. A demonstration was 
made against the rear of the Bombay army at 2 a.m, and 
immediately afterwards the outposts and advanced worics 
were attadced by 6,000 infantry, led by the French con- 
tingent in Tippoo's service. The enemy— especially the 
French — ^fought with great spirit, and the engagement, in 
which two companies of the 77th, under Lieutenant Law- 
rence, distinguished themselves, lasted several hours. The 
Mysoreans were, however, at length repulsed with a loss of 
700 men, many of the French being bayonetted inside the 
British works. 

In the course of the next few days the whole of the 
enemy's outworks south of the river were captured, and on 
the 28th and 2gth batteries were erected 360 yards from the 
western curtain to play on the north-west bastion and open 
a breach 60 yards to the south of it 

On the evening of the 3rd May the breach appeared 
nearly practicable, and it was determined to assault the place 
the following day, orders being given for the necessary dis- 
positions to be made during the night and those troops of 
the Bombay army detailed to take pairt in the assault 
brought over to the south side of the Cavery. 

Major-General David Baird, a veteran of the Indian wars, 
who had for some years been a captive in the hands of 
Tippoo, was to command the force detailed for the assault, 
which was told ofiF into rig^t and left columns. The latter 
was under the command of Lieut-Colonel Dunlop, 77^1 
Regiment, and consisted of the six European flank com- 

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panies with the Bombay army — *.«., those of H.Al/s 75th 
and 77th, and the Bombay Regiment ; the whole of lI.M.'s 
I2th and 33rd Regiments ; ten Bengal sepoy flank com- 
panies ; and fifty artillerymen. This column was to move 
left in front, and, after capturing the large cavaUer behind 
the breach, to wheel to its left and proceed along the 
northern rampart till it joined hands with the right column, 
under Colonel Sherbrooke, directed to move in similar 
manner along the southern ramparts. The two columns 
were to advance on the breach simultaneously if space 
admitted, otherwise the left was to lead. Each was to be 
preceded by a forlorn hope of a sergeant and twelve volun- 
teers supported by a subaltern and twenty-five men. The 
leading flank companies were provided with hand hatchets 
and ordered to use the bayonet principally, and only fire 
in case of absolute necessity: 

Contrary to usual custom, General Harris ordered the 
assault to be made at i p.m. " From knowledge of the 
customs of the natives of India," he judged "that the garrison 
would not be apprehensive of an assault or prepared to make 
that obstinate resistance which at any other time might be 
expected to an attack." Accordingly the bombardment was 
resumed in the morning, and all through the forenoon the 
guns roared across the Caveiy as the British battered the 
breach and raked the south-west face of the fort from end 
to end. The infantry who were to make the assault mean- 
while awaited, crowded in the trenches, the moment that was 
to decide the fate of Seringapatam. They had an arduous 
task before them, as is apparent to anyone who takes his 
stand near the two half-buried gims that to-day mark where 
the advanced parallel was in 1799, ^^^ gazes at the ramparts 
opposite across the river. It is true that the ditch is only 
about seven feet deep, and that the north-west bastion is 
too small to have afforded a very effective flank defence, 

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but the breach must have been very steep and difficult to 
surmount, and immediately in rear of where it was is a lofty 
cavalier commanding all the works at this angle of the for- 
tress, and separated from the outer rampart by a deep ditch. 
The existence of this ditch was unknown to the besiegers 
at the time, and this obstacle might have caused the failure 
of the assault if the defence had been more ably 

"The state of silent and awful expectation in the 
trenches,'* says Colonel Wilks, "as the expected hour 
approached may be more easily imagined than described/* 
.... "Within a few minutes of one, General Baird 
sent round to the corps composing the assault to be ready 
at an instant's warning, and when the precise moment had 
arrived, he ascended Uie parapet in the trench in full view 
of both armies, a military figure suited to such an occasion, 
and with an energy and animation not to be surpassed, draw- 
ing his sword, and addressing the soldiers in a tone which 
thrilled along the trenches, he desired them to follow him 
and show themselves worthy of the name of British sol- 

The stormers immediately sprang out of the trenches and 
dashed across the wide and roclgr river bed towards the 
breach. In spite of the heavy pounding of the morning, the 
enemy received them with a very heavy musketry and 
artillery fire, and when Lieutenant Lawrence, commanding 
the support of the forlorn hope, reached the top of the glacis 
he found that the forlorn hope " had formed and commenced 
to fire instead of rushing ia" Lawrence, who had already 
been wounded by a shot in the left arm, " ran from right to 
left hurrahing them on, and was at last compelled to run 
through the files to the front calling out, ' Now is the time 

* Hittory of Mytora. 

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for the breach/ *'* On this they leapt into the ditch, followed 
by the support, and climbed up the steep slope in front of 
diem. In the breach they were met by a body of Mysoreans, 
iKdio gallantly charged down, sword in hand, to meet them. 
A severe hand-to-hand fight ensued, and Colonel Dunlop, 
as he led up his grenadiers and light infantry, had a 
desperate encounter with one of Tippoo's sirdars, who met 
him scimitar in hand. Parrying a blow with his sabre, he 
slashed open his adversar/s breast, and miortally wounded 
him, but the man with his remaining strength responded 
with a cut that nearly hewed off Dunlop's head, and the 
Colonel, on reaching the summit of the breach, fell from loss 
of blood. 

In spite of the resistance they encountered, only six 
minutes elapsed from the moment that they advanced from 
their trenches before the stormers reached the summit of the 
breach and planted the British colours thereon in signal of 
dieir success. A formidable obstacle, hitherto unsuspected, 
now presented itself. In the order for the assault the left 
column had been directed to occupy the cavaUer behind the 
breach before moving along the northern rampart This 
cavalier, however, was now foimd to be part of an inner lin^ 
of ramparts and separated from the outer line by a deep 
and apparently impassable ditch. On seeing this General 
Baird ordered the leading companies of the left column to 
wheel to the left and dear the outer north rampart, while 
the regiments in support found a means of crossing the 

Tippoo himsdf now appeared on the scene to oppose the 
entrance of the hated British into his capital He had 
refused to listen to the warnings of his officers that an attack 
was imminent, and had "allow:ed one of his youthful 
flatterers to sununon the men from their positions on the 

* life of Sir Heary Lawrence. 

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ramparts to receive their pay at mid-day."* He himself was 
seated at his mid-day meal when the assault commenced. 
On the news being brought to him he hastened to the north 
rampart with a glittering band of chiefs and nobles to 
oppose the further advance of the British, and the flankers 
of the 75th and 7^ and their comrades of the Bombay 
Regiment met with a most determined resistance. 

All their officers had now been killed or disabled, and the 
enemy was sheltered by a succession of well-built traverses 
on the outer wall and assisted by a heavy, flanking fire from 
the inner rampart At length, however, the British suc- 
ceeded in obtaining access to the latter. H.M. 12th R^- 
ment, idio followed the Bombay flankers, had been able 
to find a narrow platform crossing the ditch, and their light 
company, gaining the inner rampart and driving the enenqr 
upon it before them, opened a heavy fire on the Mysoreans 
opposing the British on the outer wall 

The latter were now enabled to make better headway, 
and, under Captain Lambton, General Baird's Brigade 
Major, who had assumed the command, steadily drove the 
enemy before them into the north-east comer of the fortress. 
Here the surviving Mysoreans were attacked in rear by 
Colonel Sherbrooke's column, and after a great slau^^ter 
among them utterly routed. Tippoo, who had retired from 
the north rampart some time before, had been shot by a 
man of the 12th, on his way into the inner fort, whither he 
was retirix^ in hopes of holding it after the loss of the outer 

All resistance on the part of the enemy was now at an 
end, and the British were at length masters of Seringa- 

Their share in the achievement cost the 77th the loss of 

* Colooel Blanetoo't ** Serisiapatam.' 

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three officers and sixty men killed and wounded.* Captain 
Owen had been killed and Colonel Dtinlop and Lieutenant 
Lawrence severely wounded 

The latter officer was the only survivor of the four subal- 
terns who had volunteered to cover the forlorn hope. Hav- 
ing been already wounded on his way up to the counter- 
scarpi he received a second wound while ascending the 
breach, and, fainting from loss of blood, was dragged to one 
side and left lying there, exposed to the full glare of the mid- 
day sun. Some hours later he was found by a 77th man 
who happened to pass that way and recognised the yellow 
facings of his raiment on what he thought was a dead 
officer. Finding Lawrence still living, the man by a great 
effort — ^for Lawrence was over six feet in height and bulky 
in proportion — picked him up and staggered off to camp, 
swearing " he would not do as much for any other man of 
them."f This unknown soldier thus preserved the life of 
the man who was to be the father of those two famous 
brothers — Sir Henry and Lord Lawrence— destined to 
render such splendid service to England in later days. 

After the reduction of Seringapatam the 77th returned to 
the Malabar Coast, and on the 25th May went into canton- 
ments at Tellicherry, where it remained till again called 
upon to take the field. The British did not succeed in 
taking possession of the various territories of the 
late Sultan Tippoo without considerable opposition, 
and in September it was necessary to send a 
force against the commandant at Jumaulabad, in South 
Canara, who had refused to yield up the fort there. The 
77th, imder Major Spry, marched to Mangalore on the sth 

* The total loss of Colonel Dnolop't oohmm was 174 (7 per cent.) killed and woimded 
The 77th flank companies had been completed to 100 men each, and were commanded by 
Captains Joseph Owen and John Shawe. 

t life of Sir Henry Lawrence. 

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September to take part in this expedition. It amved there 
on the 17th, and a few days later the flank companies, with 
those of the 75th, under the command of Major Spry, 
attacked and carried the fort 

After this service the regiment embarked, on the 26th 
October at Mangalore, in small boats for conveyance to 
Calicut and Cochin. A gale of wind, however, that sprung 
up during the vo)^ge down the coast having scattered the 
boats, they were compelled to put in for shelter at various 
ports, and the regiment, when finally re-united, went into 
cantonments at Cannanore. 

Early in the year rSoo the regiment was trans- 

1800. ferred to the Madras Establishment, its past ser- 
vices receiving handsome and complimentary 
recognition in a General Order issued by the Bombay 
Government It now quitted the Malabar Coast, and march- 
ing again into Mysore arrived on the 4th February at 
Chitteldroog (about 150 miles north of Seringapatam), 
where it encamped. The following month it took part in 
an expedition against the Rajah of Bullum, who had en- 
trenched himself in a strong stockaded position in the forest 
at Arrakaira.* The post was stormed on the 30th March 
after a stout resistance. Colonel Montresor reported in his 
despatch that the column of attack, consisting of the flank 
companies of the 73rd and 77th, and four companies of 
sepoys, was led by Captain McPherson, of the 77th, " with 
a degree of spirit and gallantry which overcame a continued 
range of obstacles and resistances for nearly a mile and a 
half through most intricate country." 

The regiment had four men killed in this expedition, on 
the conclusion of which it returned to Chitteldroog. 

* Three miles S.B. of Mnnzenbad. Tlie Rajah— Kittnapah Naik— had taken 
pottettion of the Soobromony Ghaat leading from Mysore to Canara, and tntermptad 
oemmmiication with Mangalore. 

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In June it joined a field force fonned at Chitteldroog, 
under Colonel the Hon. Arthur Wellesley — ^the future Duke 
of Wellington — ^to act against the rebel leader Dhoondiah. 
This man, who had been liberated from the dungeons of 
Seringapatam on the capture of that place by the British, 
had collected a large ntmiber of followers, including nearly 
the whole of Tippoo's cavaby and many disaffected persons 
from Hyderabad, and after seizing several places in the 
Mahratta country had threatened to enter Mysore. Colonel 
Wellesley was ordered to pursue him wherever he might be 
found, and on the 23rd June crossed the Toombudra River 
at Hurryhur and entered the Mahratta country at the head 
of two cavalry and three infantry brigades. The 77th 
fonned part of the 1st Infantry Brigade, under Colonel 
Monypenny. Having captured several of the places held 
by Dhoondiah's followers, the British on the 26th July, sur- 
rounded and attacked the strong fortress of Dummul a 
place defended by a wall some thirty feet in height with a 
deep ditch in front and held by a garrison of a thousand 

Three columns advanced to attack the place, and were 
simultaneously successful, after an obstinate resistance by 
the garrison. Colonel Wellesley, in his despatch, said he 
could not "say too much in favour of the troops," and 
especially mentioned the gallantry of Captain McPherson, 
of the 77th, who commanded a column composed of the 
flank companies of the regiment and some sepoys. 

Four days later the force, after a very harassing march, 
came up with the rear of Dhoondiah's army as it was crossing 
the Malpurba River, and inflicted a severe defeat on it, 
many of the enemy being driven into the river and 

All through August the force continued in pursuit of the 

rebel leader, whose rapid movements entailed constant and 


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ardvous marches on the British. At the beginning of Sep- 
tember» however, Dhoondiah was at length driven into the 
Raichoor Doab, and on the loth of that month Colonel 
Wellesley was able to bring him to an action, in which the 
rebel force was utterly defeated and broken up and its leader 

This action was fought by the cavalry alone, the infantry 
not being able to get up in time to take part in it, but in 
his final despatch dealing with this campaign. Colonel 
Wellesley reported that " all the troops had undergone with 
greatest patience and perseverance a series of fatiguing 

At the beginning of January, 1801, the 77th 

1801. arrived in Cotiote, where it was engaged for some 
time in a series of harassing marches and skir- 
mishes in.a thickly-wooded, hilly country, in which the rebel 
natives had occupied a number of strong positions com- 
manding the roads. Later, during the same campaign, the 
regiment was employed in the Wynaad country above the 

On the nth April, while still serving in the Wynaad, it 
received orders to proceed to Palamcotah and join the troops 
engaged in the Polygar war, who had recently been repulsed 
in an attack on the fortress of Panjalamcoorchy. Arriving 
before that place on the 21st May, it joined the force under 
, Colonel Agnew, of the Madras army, assembled for a further 
attack. The fort was of considerable strength, having a wall 
and bastion from twelve to fifteen feet in height surrounded 
by a thick thorn hedge, forming a serious obstade to an 
attacking force. A peculiarity of the place was that the bas- 
tions were hollow. An assailant on mounting the parapet 
could find no footing on the top, and was exposed to the 
long pikes of the defenders some fifteen feet below him. 
The previous assault had failed through having been made 

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on the bastions before they had been breached This aiis- 
take was not repeated, and the place was subjected to a 
heavy bombardment, by which one of the bastions was 
eflFectually breached and the neighbouring curtains nearly 
levelled with the ground. The assault was made at i p.m. 
on the 24th, four companies of the 77th, under Major Grant, 
taking part in it The garrison made a most desperate resist- 
ance, and, after being greatly impeded in their advance by 
the thorn hedges, the stormers had a hard fight for more 
than twenty minutes at the summit of the breach before 
they became masters of the place. Nearly all the defenders 
of the bastion had by this time been killed by hand grenades 
and shot thrown over the wall among them, but the greater 
part of the garrison of the fort forced their way out and 
escaped. The British lost 186 officers and men in capturing 
Panjalamcoorchy, and the 77th had Lieutenants Campbell 
and Spalding killed and 51 men killed and wounded on this 

After the fall of this fortress the regiment continued to 
serve against the Polygars in the force under Colonel 
Agnew, and in the continued marching and counter-march- 
ing that ensued took part in several partial engagements 
and skirmishes, sufiFering at times considerable loss. 

The enemy's principal stronghold was Caliarcoil, a place 
surrounded by dense forest and very difficult of approach. 
Colonel Agnew, having left Madura on the 22nd July, 
reached Serruvial, about five miles distant from Caliarcoil, 
on the 29th, and shortly afterwards commenced the con- 
struction of a road through the almost impenetrable jungle 
that separated him from the Polygar capital On the 5th 
August the enemy threw up an entrenchment across the 
road, and some hard fighting took place, in which 37 
Europeans and 25 natives were killed and wounded* 

* Captain Macintosh of the 77ih was among those wounded. ^ 

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The thick jungle hindiered the advance, and the pioneers 
were stopped by the heavy fire from the enemy sheltered 
behind banks and entrenchments. 

In spite of the difficulties caused by the enemy, the trying 
climate of Southern India, and continually increasing sick- 
ness, Colonel Agnew persisted in his arduous undertaking 
for some weeks, but on the 2nd September, when constant 
exposure to the sun and great fatigues had caused much 
sickness in his force, he at leng^ abandoned his project 
and retired on Ookoor, about five miles west of SerruviaL 

At the end of the month, however, an opportunity pre- 
sented itself of surprising Caliarcoil, and three columns were 
set in motion on the 30th to attack that place from different 
points. The operations were successful, and the colimm, 
composed of the 77th and the 6th Madras Infantry, under 
Lieut-Colonel Spry, which had commenced its march at 
night and followed a path recently discovered to the British 
by a Mahomedan, surprised the enemy at daylight, dispersed 
them, and captured their stronghold 

This defeat of the Polygars ended the insurrection, and 
the 77th, rendered almost unfit for further service by the 
length and severity of the campaign, went into cantonments 
at Trichinopoly on the 8th November. 

The regiment, however, was allowed a very short rest 
before being again required to take the field, as on the 5th 
December it was ordered to march to Seringapatam and be 
in readiness for immediate service. 

Arriving at Seringapatam on the 18th, it joined a force 
under Colonel Wellesley destined to serve against the 
Rajah of Bullum, who had again rebelled on Colonel Mon- 
tresor's departure from his territory in 1800, and re-com- 
menced his predatory inroads. Owing to the operations 
against Dhoondiah, the Polygars, and others, the Company 
had been unable to send a force against him before, and he 

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had continued his depredations with impunity^ but his day 

of reckoning had now come. Colonel Wellesley attacked 

his capital, Arrakaira, in three columns, on the morning of 

the 1 6th January, 1802, and captured all the 

1802. stockaded posts defending it, with trifling loss. 
The Rajah fled, but was shortly after captured 
and executed, and the rebeUion in Bullimi was entirely sup- 

The 77th were commended in orders by Colonel Welles- 
ley for their services in this expedition, and, the force being 
broken up, went into cantonments at Mangalore. 

Soon after the regiment's arrival on the Malabar Coast 
there was an outbreak by the Nairs in Cotiote, who 
attacked and massacred a detachment of Bombay sepoys 
stationed there, and in order to punish the Rajah and reduce 
Cotiote and the Wynaad to obedience a force, under 
Colonel Montresor, of the 80th Regiment, was assembled 
at Tellicherry for service in these two districts. 

A detachment of the 77th, consisting of four companies 
of sixty men each, which comprised nearly all the available 
men, was despatched from Mangalore in boats, and joined 
Colonel Montresor at Tellicherry. 

During the ensuing campaign in Cotiote and the Wynaad, 
as in the former one, the services of the troops engaged 
were of a very arduous description owing to the natiure of 
the country— hiUy and densely wooded— and the tactics of 
the enemy, but by the month of June, when the setting in 
of the monsoon prevented the troops from continuing any 
longer in the field, the two districts had been nearly restored 
to tranquility. The Nairs had been driven into the moun- 
tains, many of their villages destroyed, and nearly all their 
standing com destroyed. 

The headquarters remained at Mangalore till 

1803. July, 1803, when the regiment was ordered to join 

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the army forming under Colonel Arthur Wellesley for 
service against the Mahratta chiefs Scindiah and Holkar. 
The detachment lately employed in Cotiote having rejoined 
on the 20th July, the regiment left Mangalore on the 28th 
on its way to join Colonel Wellesley, but on arriving at 
Cundapoor on the 2nd Aug^t was ordered to halt and 
await further orders. Soon after it was directed to march 
to the Portuguese port of Goa, which, owing to the renewal 
of the war with France, was considered in danger of a 
French attack, and therefore provided with a British garri- 

The 77th, thus prevented from taking part in the Mahratta 
campaign and sharing in the glories of Assaye, marched 
from Cundapoor on the 13th August and arriving on the 
2nd September at Goa, encamped at Gaspardas, overlook- 
ing the entrance to the harbour. 

Goa remained unmolested by the French, and 

1805. the 77th continued there inactive till May, 1805, 
when, having been transferred from the Madras 

Presidency, it embarked for Bombay. It landed there on 
the 18th May, and was at first quartered at Colaba, whence 
it moved in August to Old Woman's Island to make room 
for the 56th Regiment, lately landed from England. 

After more than eighteen years' service in 

1806. India, the regiment received orders in November, 
1806, to hold itself in readiness to return to 

England, and on the 24th of that month it paraded for its 
last inspection in India before Lieutenant-General Nicholls, 
Commander-in-Chief of the Bombay Army. 

The regiment having marched past, performed the 
manual and platoon exercises, and several manoeuvres, 
formed square, and was addressed by the Commander-in- 
Chief in a "neat and appropriate" speech, in which he 
pointed out to the men the opportunity they had of serving 

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their country in India with the same honour and credit as 
they had done hitherto by entering either of the regiments 
offered to them which had " stamped themselves with a 
character worthy of the soldiers of the 77th."* 

The "Bombay Courier," in describing this inspection, 
said : — " It is idle to deduce from its appearance on parade 
or the manner in which it performed its evolutions, any com- 
mendation of a regiment whose military discipline and ex- 
cellence is best seen in its gallant, steady, and successful con- 
duct in the field, and its exemplary regularity and order in 
garrison " ; and expressed regret at the settlement losing 
" so agreeable a portion of its society and India so many 
brave defenders." 

The Bombay Government expressed its appreciation of 
the services rendered by the 77th since its arrival in the 
Presidency in 1788 in the following order by the Governor 
in Cotmcil issued from Bombay Castle on the 9th February, 

"The records bear ample testimony to the 
1807. high sense which the Government entertained of 
the conspicuous merits of His Majesty's 77th 
R^^ent at the period of its transfer from this Presidency 
to that of Fort St George ; and it being now on the eve 
of departure from India, the Honourable the Governor in 
Council feels great satisfaction in referring to the order of 
Govenmaent dated 2nd April, 1800, and to have it in his 
power to add, that since the return of the 77th Regiment 
to this Presidency their orderly conduct has heightened the 
favourable sentiments he formerly entertained of that dis- 
tinguished and valuable corps. In view of the long and 
faithful service of which during a period of nearly twenty 

*" Bombay Courier," 6tb December, 1806. 

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years in India, the officers are allowed to draw three 
months' full batta previous to their embarkation.** 

In publishing this order, " so highly creditable to H.M. 
77th Regiment, and expressive of the Governor's sense of 
their merits — since no stronger proof could be given them 
than by liberally granting three months* batta to the 
officers," the Commander-in-Chief of the Bombay Army 
said he was " happy in being able to concur in all the 
Governor had been pleased to say of the orderly conduct of 
the corps since its return to that Presidency, for it had been 
exemplary, while their appearance and performance on 
parade had shown him on many occasions that both officers 
and men were both masters of their business as soldiers.'* 

The headquarters of the regiment, under Colonel White- 
locke, sailed from Bombay in the " St. Vincent," East India- 
man, on the loth February, and was followed during the 
course of the month by the remainder of the regiment* in 
the Indiamen "Nelson,** "Huddart," and "Ganges." The 
fleet for England assembled at the appointed rendezvous 
off Point de Galle, and sailed homeward bound on the 25th 

On the 29th May, after a long continuance of bad weather, 
which had scattered the fleet, the " Ganges " was observed 
to make signals of distress. One of the other vessels suc- 
ceeded, towards evening, in getting near enough to rescue 
the passengers (including Lieut-General NichoUs and part 
of the 77th under Lieut.-Colonel Maddison) and crew, 
amoimting together to 207 souls, but it was impossible to 
save the ship, and she sank with a valuable cargo the follow- 
ing day in latitude 39° south, longitude 20° east 

* General NiehoUs' *' neat and appropriate" speech most have indneed a mimber of 
men to volunteer to remain in India, as the 77th on arriving in England had only ISS men 
with the colours. In 1896 after transferring 460 men to its linked battalion, it left Bomb«y 
for England with 322. 

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The fleet, having re-assembled at St Helena, sailed 
thence cm the 28th June, and arrived in sight of the Lizard 
on the 4th September. 

Ten days later the ships conveying the 77th arrived at 
Greenhithe, and the regiment, after an absence from 
England of nineteen and a half years disembarked and took 
up its quarters in Chatham Barracks. 

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1807 — 181 1. 

The Regiment quartered at Chatham and augmented by volun- 
teers from the Militia— Moves to Lincoln— To Winchester — 
Employed in Lord Chatham's expedition to the Scheldt — 
Lands in the Island of Walcheren— Capture of Flushing — 
Outbreak of fever— Severe losses among the troops— The 
Regiment returns to England in detachments— Quartered at 
Chichester— The Plume of the Prince of Wales authorised on 
the Regimental badge— The Regiment moves to Jersey — 
Further augmented by volunteers from the Militia— Embarks 
for service in the Peninsula. 

The regiment returned from India very weak 
1807. in point of numbers, the effective non-commis- 
sioned officers and men present not exceeding 
IS3> but it was soon augmented by recruits and volunteers 
from the 3rd West York, West Kent, and North 
Hampshire Militia * 

After being some six weeks at Chatham, during which 
its old colours were replaced by new ones presented by the 
East India Company, the regiment moved into quarters in 

*The ttrength. on landing ezdnshre of offices, was 31 aergeanU. 13 dmmmara. and 
109 tank and file. A London vvpex in September. 1807. referred to the reemiting of the 
regiment in the following terms :—** With the last India Fleet came home the pceoioaa 
remains of that fine oorps the TTtb Regiment. Upwards of 19 years ago they went onft to 
India a yonng regiment, but they greatly distinguished themsehres there, there being 
hardly an affair of oonseanenee in whioh this very fine regiment was not engaged. So 
high is the character of this regiment that, thoogh they have not been a week in 
England, a battalion is almost completed by voluiteers from some of the finest Militia 
Regiments. Colonel Whitelooke (brother of the General), Majors Spry and McGregor 
have come home with the 77th." 

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Rochester on the 31st October. It, however, only 
remained here a short time, as on the loth November it 
marched for Lincohi, where it arrived on the 2Sth. While 
at Lincoln it continued to be augmented by recruits and 
volunteers, receiving men from the ist West York, North 
and South Mayo, Northampton, South Lincoln, and West 
Suffolk Militia.* 

Lieutenant-General the Earl of Cavan was 

1808. appointed colonel of the regiment, vice Bertie, 
in April, 1808. 

On the 8th August the regiment marched from Lincoln 

for Winchester, where it arrived on the 2Sth, and occupied 

the barracks. Between the 2Sth March and 

1808. 24th of June, 1809, 253 volunteers and recruits 
from the 2nd Royal Lancashire, Tower 
Hamlets, and other regiments of Militia joined the 
regiment here. 

Colonel Whitelocke having obtained leave to retire from 
the service, Lieutenant-Colond J. Maddison (the second 
lieutenant-colonel) succeeded to the command of the 
regiment, and Lieutenant-Colonel John Bromhead, from 
the 34th Regiment, to the second lieutenant-colonelcy. 

The regiment marched from Winchester on the 6th 
July, and joined the encampment in the neighbourhood of 
Gosport, to form part of the expedition under the 
command of the Earl of Chatham, destined for the 
Scheldt Having arrived in camp on the 7th July, it was 
attached to the brigade of Major-General Picton, in 
Lieutenant-General Frazer's (3rd) divisioa On the i6th 
it embarked on board H.M.S. "Illustrious" (74), which 
sailed on the 25th, and on the 27th anchored in the Downs, 
where the whole of the expedition assembled 

*The 97th beoame the Ba8t MiddlMez Segiment in 1807, but there it no mention In 
the Baoofds at this time of any men received from the Middlesex Militia. 

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On the 29th July the expedition sailed for the Scheldt, 
and anchored in the Stone deep at 3 o'clock p.m. On the 
30th the fleet got under weigh and anchored in the 
Roompot The troops landed in the evening in the 
Island of Walcheren, with little opposition; and on the 
31st marched to invest the town of Ter Veere, which after 
a short bombardment from the gun boats, surrendered on 
the morning of the ist August 

On the 2nd the regiment joined the investing army at 
Flushing, taking up a position at the village at Ruttem, 
near the Fort of Ramakins, and the following day a 
detachment of the corps broke grotmd before the Fort of 
Ramakins, which, however, capitulated before a battery 
was completed On the 15th, after a bombardment of two 
days. Flushing capitulated. 

Great sickness had for some time prevailed in that part 
of the army stationed on the Island of South Beveland, 
and began to extend itself in an alarming degree in the 
Island of Walcheren, soon after the troops, in consequence 
of the termination of the siege, ceased to be actively 
employed The //th, when it marched into barracks at 
Flushing on the 27th August (its strength being 33 officers 
and 530 non-commissioned officers and privates), had 15 
officers and 359 non-commissioned officers and privates 
sick of the fever. 

The following officers died at Flushing of intermittent 
fever during the month of September: — Captain Charles 
Macintosh, Lieutenants Slack and Gray, and EnsigQ 

The sickness continuing to extend, it was found neces* 
sary to embark the worst cases, for the purpose of sendii^ 
them to England The first detachment of sick, consisting 
of 134 men, embarked on the 5th of October, when the 
strength of the regiment was as follows : — 

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Fit for duty ... 14 Officers, 120 Non-Commissioned 
Officers and Privates. 

Side 4 Officers, 248 Non-Commissioned 

Officers and Privates. 

The sick having continued to embark for England from 
time to time by small detachments, the state of the 
regiment on the 22nd November, when the headquarters 
embarked for England, was as follows: — 

Officers 13 Fit for duty... 9 Sick... 4 

N.C.O's. and Men... 155 Fit for duty... 126 Sick... 29 

A detachment, consisting of Captain Herriott, 2 subal- 
terns, and 100 men, remained to do duty at Flushing, where 
it was determined to destroy the docks and arsenal before 
abandoning the Island of Walcheren. 

The staflF of the regiment embarked in different vessels 
and landed at various ports in England, but the head- 
quarters were established at Chichester on the 

1810. 7th January under the command of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Dunkin, who had succeeded as second 
lieutenant-colonel on the retirement of Lieutenant-Colonel 

On the 24th February the regiment received the King's 
permission to bear the plume of the Prince of Wales on its 
colours and appointments. The badge had been worn by 
the r^^iment for some time past, and the Colonel (Lord 
Cavan) had applied for official sanction for its retention by 
the corps. 

On the nth April Lieutenant-Colonel Bromhead, who 
had succeeded Lieutenant-Colonel Maddison as senior 
lieutenant-colonel, joined and assumed command, and soon 
afterwards the regiment received orders to proceed to 
Jersey. It left Bexhill (whither it had moved from 
Chichester) on the ist June, and marching by Eastbourne, 
Newhaven, Shoreham, Brighton, and Chichester, reached 

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Portsmouth on the 7th. There it embarked on the loth, 
in transports, in which it arrived at St. Aubin's Fieri 
Jersey, on the 14th. On first landing the headquarters 
were stationed at St Ouen's Barracks, but on the 25th 
June the regiment marched into camp at Port Marque, 
where it remained till the end of October. On the 29th 
October it moved into Granville Barracks, and 

1811. on the 1st January, 181 1, into the barracks on 
St Helier's pier. The regiment was consider- 
ably strengthened whUe at Jersey by the accession of 
recruits and volunteers from the Militia — ^as many as 244 
joining between the i6th of December, 1810, and 24th 
June, 181 1 — ^and in the summer of 181 1 received orders to 
join Lord Wellington's army in Spain. 

It accordingly embarked for the Peninsula under the 
command of Lieutenant-Colonel Bromhead on the 25th 

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Frunx an oriuinal Oil Fainting 1 

Lieut.-General . • 
Sir Thomas Picton, 
G.C.B., Colonel, 
77TH Regiment, • • 
1811 — 1815. . . . 

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The Peninsula. 

1811 — 1814. 

Arrival ait Lisbon— March to the front— The Regiment joins Sir 
Thomas Picton's Pivision at Albergaria— Blockade of Ciudad 
Rodrigo— The aflfair of El Bodon— Retreat of the French- 
Winter quarters— Sir Thomas Picton appointed Colonel of the 
77th— Siege and capture of Ciudad Rodrigo— The main 
breach carried by the 3rd Division— The 3rd Division marches 
south— Siege of Badajoz— Assault and capture of the Castle- 
Fall of the fortress— Return to the north— The Regiment too 
much reduced in strength to continue in the field— Ordered to 
the base— March to Lisbon— Gradually augmented by drafts 
from the depdt— Returns to the front— Lands at Passages— At 
St. Jean de Luz— Advance into France— Investment of 
Bayonne— End of the war-^The Regiment embarks for 

The 77th landed at Lisboii on the 5th July, 
1811. its strength being 3 field officers, 5 captains, 9 
lieutenants, 10 ensigns, 6 staff officers, 36 
sergeants, 18 drummers, and 782 rank and file. It remained 
at Lisbon completing its field equipment till the 20th, and 
then embarked in boats, in which it was conveyed up the 
Tagus as far as Vellada. The following day it marched 
to Santarem, where it remained during the 22nd A 
sergeant and five men were unfortunately drowned here 
while bathing in the Tagua On the 23rd the regiment 
continued its march, and proceeding by Gallegao, Punhete, 

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and GaviaO; reached Niza on the 31st and joined the 5th 
Division, under Major-General Dunlop* Resuming its 
march next day, the regiment crossed the Tagus at Villa 
Velha, and moving thence by Castello Branco, Sabugal, and 
Aldea de Ponte, eventually joined Sir Thomas Picton's (3rd) 
Division at Albergaria, being posted to the Left Brigade, 
under Major-General Colville. Its strength on the 15th 
August, when it marched into cantonments at Alamedilla, 
was 3 field officers, 4 captains, g lieutenants, 5 ensigns, 5 
staff officers, 54 sergeants, 16 drummers, and 599 rank and 
file fit for duty, and 42 sick. During the march from 
Santarem a number of men who had suffered from the 
Walcheren disease were left behind at the several hospital 

Soon after the regiment's arrival at the front the 
army advanced and blockaded Ciudad Rodrigo, which 
was completely invested on the 5th September, on 
which date the 77th marched and occupied quarters 
at Robleda. The blockade, however, was soon inter- 
rupted by the advance of a strong French force, 
60,000 strong, with 100 guns, under Marshal Marmont, 
which arrived at Tamames, three leagues east of the 
fortress, on the 22nd September. Lord Wellington 
being unable, through want of numbers, to oppose this 
force, concentrated his scattered troops and took up a 
position south-west of Rodrigo to observe the movements 
of the French. The centre, near El Bodon, was occupied 
by the 3rd Division, under Major-General Picton. The 
French marshal, continuing his advance, sent a large 
convoy of provisions into the fortress on the 24th, and on 
the following morning despatched General Montbrun with 

*An old 77th officer who had joined the regiment on its formation and oommanded it 
at Seringapatam. 

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14 battalions, 30 squadrons, and 12 guns against General 
PiCton's Divisioa The position of the division was on 
the heights of El Bodon and Pastores, on the left bank of 
the River Agueda, within three miles of Rodrigo— which 
is lower down and on the opposite bank — commanding a 
complete prospect of the surrounding plaina Montbrun 
crossed the Agueda by the bridge at Rodrigo and the 
fords above it, and advanced rapidly with his cavalry, by 
the road leading past El Bodon on the west, towards 
Guinaldo, the allied headquarters. By this movement 
General Picton's left flank was completely turned, and the 
action commenced very disadvantageously for him, as he 
himself, with three regiments, was in the village of El 
Bodon, over a mile from the point threatened, while two 
other r^panents were so far distant on the right that they 
could not be called in in time to take part in the action. 
At this critical moment Lord Wellington ordered Major- 
General Colville to draw up the 5th and 77th Regiments 
and the 21st Portuguese, with two brigades of Portuguese 
artillery, on the hill over which the road to Guinaldo 
passed, supporting them on the flanks with three squadrons 
of cavalry. This hill was covered in front and on the 
flanks by ravines, but was too extensive for the small 
force available to hold it — ^the Sth and 77th together did 
not exceed 700 men — and the French cavalry, in spite of 
the murderous fire of grape and canister that met them, 
and the gallant charges of the allied cavalry, succeeded in 
ascending the slope and capturing the Portuguese artillery, 
cutting down the gunners beside their piecea The 5th 
Raiment thereupon charged the cavalry and re-captured 
the guns, and the 77th, supported by the Portuguese 
r^^ent, at the same time advanced and repulsed 
the enemy on the left By this success, however, the 

French advance was only checked for a time, as their 

D 2 

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masses pf cavalry pressed forward on either flank, 
threatening to envelope General Colville's small force, and 
their supporting infantry rapidly approached. 

General Picton had been delayed in moving to the 
assistance of his left brigade through the difficulties he had 
experienced in withdrawing his troops from the enclosures 
of El BodoQ, and Lord Wellington, considering the 
advanced positions of the 3rd Division untenable, ordered 
him and General Colville to retire and unite in the plain 
in rear. General Colville at once descended from the hill 
he had so gallantly held, with his infantry formed in two 
squares, the 2ist Portuguese, accompanied by the cavalry, 
commencing the retirement "Then," says Colonel 
Napier, " the 5th and 77th, two weak battalions formed in 
one square, were quite exposed, and in an instant the 
whole of the French cavahry came thundering down on 
them. How vain, how fruitless, to match the sword with 
the musket! To send the charging horseman against the 
steadfast veteran! The multitudinous squadrons, rending 
the skies with their shouts, and closing upon the glowing 
square like the falling edges of a burning crater, were as 
instantly repulsed, scorched and scattered abroad ; and the 
rolling peal of musketry had scarcely ceased to echo in 
the hills, when bayonets glittered at the edge of the smoke, 
and with firm and even step the British regiments came 
forth like the holy men from the Assyrian's furnace." 

General Picton having at length extricated his right 
brigade from the El Bodon enclosures, now joined General 
Colville, and forming the division in mass of quarter 
columns, led it towards the entrenched camp at Guinaldo» 
six miles in rear. His retreat has been thus described* by 
an officer of the division who was present 

^ *Grattan'8 " Adventures witb the Connaught Rangen." 

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"Montbnin, with fifteen squadrons, pressed closely 
on our right flank, and made every demonstration 
of attacking with the view of engaging our atten- 
tion till the arrival of his infantry and artillery, of 
which he then had only one battery in the field; 
but General Picton saw his critical position, and that 
only the most rapid, and at the same time most regular, 
movement on Guinaldo could save his divisioa For six 
miles across a perfect flat^ without the slightest protection 
from any incident of ground, without artillery and almost 
without cavalry, did the division march. During the whole 
time the enemy's cavalry never quitted them ; a park of 
six guns advanced with the cavalry, and taking the division 
in flank and rear, potired in a frightful fire of round shot, 
grape, and canister. Many men fell this way, and had 
perforce to be abandoned to the enemy. This was a 
trying and pitiable situation for troops to be placed in, but 
in no way shook the courage or confidence of the soldiers ; 
so far from being dispirited or cast down they were cheerful 
and gay. General Picton conducted himself with his 
accustomed coolness ; he remained on the left flank of the 
column and repeatedly cautioned the different battalions 
to mind the quarter distance and the ' telling off.* ' Your 
safety,* added he, ' my credit, and the honour of the army 
are at stake : all rests with you at this moment" We had 
reached within a mile of the camp when Montbrun, 
impatient lest we should escape from his grasp, ordered his 
troopers to bring up their right shoulders and incline 
towards the column: the movement not exactly bringing 
the squadrons into line, but being the next thing to it At 
this time they were within half pistol-shot General 
Picton took off his hat, and holding it over his eyes as a 
shade, looked sternly but anxiously at the French. The 
clatter of horses and clanking of scabbards was so great 

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when the right half -squadron moved up that many thought 
it the forerunner of a general charge : some mounted officer 
called out 'had we not better form square?' 'No/ 
replied Picton, ' it is but a ruse to frighten us, but it won't 
do/ After this the French slackened their pace, and in 
half-an-hour the division was safe behind the lines at 

The 77th lost 23 men killed and wounded in this affair * 
An ofiftcer of the regiment, writing home a few days later, 
said the enemy had "five guns and a howitzer constantly 
playing on us, and every shot fell among us. That there 
should have been so many narrow escapes of our officers is 
almost incredible. Colonel Bromhead was nearly shot 
twice. A shot fell under Colonel Dunkin's horse and 
covered him with dirt without hurting him or horse. Our 
major had a portmanteau knocked from the rear of his 
saddle by a nine pounder shot within half a foot of his 
back ; he coolly turned round and said ' There was nearly 
an end of poor Jack.' The adjutant and his horse were 
knocked down by a shell, but neither of them hurt, 
although a number of our cavalry galloped over them.'* 

The same writer says " The greater part of our r^^ent 
bad never seen a shot fired before, but behaved most 
nobly. Lord Wellington, whose coolness and decision in 
midst of a hot fire was eminently conspicuous, was close in 
our rear, and exclaimed 'Well done the 77th* when he 
saw our men behave so well After the action we were 
handsomely complimented by General Picton— certainly 
the regiment behaved uncommonly welL"f Lord Welling- 

*In 1818 Sir George Cooke, Colonel of the Regiment, tpplied for permitiion foe the 
nth to beer the words '* Bl Bodon " 00 their eoloiirt. The CommanderJn-Chief, 
however, wet of opinion thet the affiiir "did not oome under thet deteriptioo for whieh 
it is Dsoal to grant permission to regiments to bear on their eolonrs." 

f Letter from an oiBeer in the 97th Regiment, dated Caso de ICoyeodo. 30th 
September, 1811. a eopy of whieh is in the eoUeetioo of "Military Bxtraets,** R.U.S. 

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ton's high approval of the conduct of the 77th and other 
troops at El Bodon was shown in the following general 
order : — 


2nd October, 181 1. 

" The Commander of the Forces is desirous of drawing 
the attention of the Army to the conduct of the 2nd 
Battalion 5th, and 77th Regiments, and the 21st Portu- 
guese Regiment, and Major Arentschild's Portuguese 
Artillery, under the command of the Honourable Major- 
General Colville, and of the nth Light Dragoons and 1st 
Hussars, under Major-General Alten, in the affair with the 
enemy on the 25th ult 

'* These troops were attacked by between thirty and 
forty squadrons of cavalry, with six pieces of cannon, 
supported by a division consisting of fourteen battalions of 
infantry with cannoa 

" The Portuguese Artillery were cut down at their guns, 
before they quitted them, but the 2nd Battalion 5th Regi- 
ment attacked the cavalry which had taken the guns, and 
re-took them, while at the same time the 77th Regiment 
were attacked in front by another body of cavalry, upon 
which body they advanced and rqpulsed them. 

"The troops then retired with the same determined 
spirit, and in the same good order with which they had 
maintained their post; the 2nd Battalion 5th, and 77th 
Regiments in one square and the 21st Portuguese in 
another, supported by the cavalry and artillery. The 
enemy's cavalry charged three faces of the square of the 
British infantry, but were beaten off, and finding from their 
repeated further efforts that these brave troops were not 

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to be broken, they were contented with following them at 
a distance, and with firing upon them with their artillery, 
till the troops joined the remainder of the 3rd Division, 
and were afterwards supported by a brigade of the 4th 

" The Commander of the Forces has been particular in 
stating the details of this action, as it is, in his opinion, a 
memorable example of what can be effected by steadiness, 
discipline, and confidence. It is impossible that troops 
can at any time be attacked by numbers relatively greater 
than those which attacked the troops under Major-General 
Colville and Major-General Alten on the 25th September, 
and the conduct of these troops is recommended to the 
particular attention of the officers and soldiers of the 
Army as an example to be followed on all such occasions.'* 

After being under arms all day during the 26th the 
regiment marched at nine at night, when Lord Wellington 
retreated with the object of taking up a strong position on 
the River Coa to bar the further advance of the FrendL 
The march lasted all night and till six the following 
evening. Scarcely any food was received all this time, 
and many men fainted from exhaustion when the r^ment 
at length came to a halt The army marched again the 
following day, when heavy rain soaked every one to the 
skiiL On the 29th, however, after four days and nights 
spent on the mardi or under arms awaiting attack, the 
British had a night of rest — ^Marshal Marmont had 
declined to attack and retreated from the neighbourhood 
of Rodrigo the previous day. 

The Allied Army now went into cantonments, the 77th 
taking up its quarters at Forcalhos on the 2nd October. 

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In the letter quoted above the writer gives an account 
of the hardships undergone by the regiment while 
campaigning in the wild, desolate country where they now 
were. He says: — ^"We, of course, sufPer much here, but 
cheerfully. This country is a melancholy place; the 
villages destroyed or deserted, and there is scarcely any- 
thing to be got We sleep in places the most wretched 
you can conceive, when we can get a place to sleep in, but 
generally we sleep on the ground in the open air, and the 
nights now are very cold. . . . We are as comfortable 
now as we can be in a village nearly deserted. Six of us 
mess together in one room; we help to cook our own 
dinners and eat heartily. The meat is generally in the 
pot an hotir after it is killed ; notwithstanding, we manage 
to live very well, though like a set of pigs. To describe 
the wretched state of the country is completely out of my 
power. The miserable state of the inhabitants is painful 
to behold. Their villages are in ruins, and themselves 
nearly in a state of starvation, and continually obliged to 
fly to the mountains and abandon their miserable dwellings 
on the approach of the French." 

There was now a lull in the operations, during which pre- 
parations were made for besieging Rodrigo. The cold and 
wet of the succeeding months were severely felt in the 
miserable quarters occupied by the British troops, and 
with the bad quality and scarcity of provisions and the 
inactive life now led, caused much sickness, the r^ments 
that had taken part in the Walcheren expedition suffering 

At this time the 77th was honoured by the af^intment 
(on the 15th October) of Major-General Sir Thomas Picton, 

*0n the 4Ui Jasntiy. 18ia« the onmbecs of the TTth had tiink to 2 field offioecst 
6 Mptains. 14 tnbthernt, S staff. 21 lerceents, 7 dmmmen. and 830 nnk and file. 

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K.C.B., their divisional general, to the colonelcy in place 
of Sir C Hastings. 

On the 4th January the period of inaction came 

1812. to an end, and the army once more advanced 

against Rodrigo, Lord Wellington, having now 

collected sufi&cient siege material, intending to attempt the 

capture of the place by a sudden assault before it could be 


The weather was wretched in the extreme — ^"the most 
miserable day I ever witnessed," General Picton afterwards 
declared — snow, rain, cold and wind combining to make the 
iharch most harassing. Many men perished of cold and 
fatigue, as very few carts were available for bringing in 
stragglers, and any man left by the roadside soon succumbed 
to the severity of the weather. 

The 77th arrived at Martiago that evening, and on the 
6th cantoned at El Guadapero, about four and a half leagues 
from Rodrigo. On the 8th the siege of that fortress com- 
menced. The country on the right bank of the River 
Agueda being quite bare and destitute of cover, the army 
remained on the left bank, each of the four divisions present 
taking it in turn to cross the river and carry on the siege 
works for twenty-four hours. The 77th, with the 3rd Divi- 
sion, took their turn of duty on the 12th and 15th, having 
to march twelve miles to the trenches after fording the ice- 
cold river. They had no tents or huts, and the ground was 
covered with snow. 

The breaches being considered practicable, on the 19th 
orders were issued for the assault to take place at seven 
that evening; the 5th, 77th, and 94th, under Colonel Camp- 
bell, being posted behind the buildings of the Santa Cruz 
Convent, about 300 yards from the west side of the fortress, 
with orders at the appointed time to escalade the fausse 
braye in front and scour it to their left as far as the main 

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breach, where they were to join and support General Mac- 
kinnon's column. 

The three regiments reached the convent unseen by the 
enemy, and at half-past six were formed ready for the 
assault. It was a dear, starlight night, and a young moon 
illumined the then tranquil scene. "Suddenly,'* says an 
officer of the 77th who was present, "a horseman galloped 
heavily but hastily towards us — ^it was Picton. He made a 
brief and inspiriting appeal to us ; said he knew the Fifth 
were men whom a severe fire would not daunt, and he 
reposed equal confidence in the Seventy-seventh; after a 
few kind words to our commander. Colonel Dunkin, he bade 
us ' God-speed,' pounding the sides of his hog-maned cob 
as he trotted ofif."* 

The attack on the right commenced before the signal was 
given, and the three regiments under Colonel Campbell 
advanced with such rapidity that they had cleared the 
f ausse braye and were already half way up the main breach 
when General Maddnnon's column arrived The united 
columns of the 3rd Division encountered a desperate resist- 
ance and lost heavily by the explosion of a mine in the 
breach. The enemy retired behind a retrenchment in rear, 
and the British, pressing up the now widened breach, won 
the summit, but found their advance checked by the new 
work, which was protected in front by a deep ditch and 
flanked by two guns firing grape into the assaulting columns 
at dose range. A furious struggle raged for some minutes, 
and for a time the issue was doubtful, but at length the men 
of the " Fighting Division," dambering over the parapets, 
turned the retrenchment and drove the French before them 
into the town. The Light Division at the same time 
carried the lesser breach on the left, and Ciudad Rodrigo 
was woa 

^Robinson's Lifs of Sir Thomas Pioton. 

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The 77th lost on this occasion fotirteen men killed, and 
six ofiBcers — Captain Maclaine (severely, right leg ampu- 
tated). Captain McLachlan (sl^dy), Captain Baird 
(severely), Lieutenant and Adjutant Jones (slightly), Lieu- 
tenant Smith (mortally). Ensign Fitzgerald (slightly) — and 
twenty-eight men wounded. Its conduct at the assault 
was commended in the following Divisional Order pub* 
lished the following day : — 


20th January, 1812. 
Division Orders — 

"^y the gallant manner in which the breach was last 
night carried by storm, the 3rd Division has added much 
to its military reputation, and has rendered itself one of 
the most conspicuous corps in the British Army. The breach 
was first entered by the 5th, 77th, and 94th R^[iments, most 
ably supported by the flank companies of Major-General 
McKinnon's Brigade and the 45th Regiment, as well as 
other regiments of the division. 

" It is much to be regretted that this brilliant achievement 
has been obtained at the expense of so many valuable 
officers and brave men, but they have fallen nobly, doing 
their duty to their coimtry, and they will be dear to the 
recollection of every true Briton." 

" The Commanding Officers of regiments will be pleased 
to communicate to the officers, non-commissioned officers, 
and soldiers of their respective corps the Lieut-General's 
high admiration of their gallantry on this occasion, and to 
assure them that he conceives the command of the brave 

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Third Division as the greatest honour His Majesty could 
confer on him. 

"Lieut-Colonel Campbell, commanding the Right Bri- 
gade and 94th Regiment, Lieut-Colonel Dunkin, command- 
ing 7;th Regiment, and Major Ridge, the 2nd Battalion Sth 
Raiment, are particularly entitled to the thanks of the 
Lieut-General, as having led and carried the breach." 

"The spirit evinced by all the corps of the division was 
equally conspicuous, and there is no doubt that if it had 
been their lot to lead, that they would have merited equal 

" The Lieut-General promised the flank companies one 
guinea a man in case they were the first to carry the 
breach, but as from imforeseen circumstances it fell to the 
lot of the corps aheady mentioned, the sum, which would 
have amounted to about three huncBred pounds, will be pro- 
portionally divided among the British regiments of the divi- 
sion, who will do the Lieut-General the honour to drink the 
f utture success of the division." 

On the day after the successful assault of Rodrigo, the 
77th returned to El Guadapero. It marched to Martiago 
on the 27th, and thence by Atalaya and Nava d'Aver, to 
Villa Maior, where it arrived on the Sth February and 

The capture of Ciudad Rodrigo having been effected, 
Lord Wellington's next object was the reduction of Badajoz, 
the other great fortress on the Spanish frontier. The 3rd 
Division being one of those selected to take part in the 
siege, commenced its march to the southward about the 
end of February, and the 77th, having arrived at Sabugal 

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on the 26th, proceeded by Castello Branco, Vifla Veiha, 
and Niza to Portalegre, where it arrived on the 5th March. 
On the 9th it marched and encamped at Elvas ; on the i6th 
it crossed the Guadiana; and on the 17th arrived before 
Badajoz, and took up its position in die line of investment 

The 77th took its tour of duty in the trenches during the 
siege, and Brevet Lieut-Colonel Rudd, of the r^^ent, 
conmianded one of the parties at the attack and capture of 
La Picurina outwork, when he was severely wounded On 
the 6th April orders were issued for the assault of the for- 
tress at six different points that night The 3rd Division 
was to attack the Castle by escalade, and at eight o'clock 
formed up in open column right in front near the extreme 
right of the trenches. Arms were then piled, and ofiftcers 
and men remained for a while conversing in groups, await- 
ing the moment named for the advance. 

The night was dry, though cloudy, with a thick mist from 
the Guadiana and Rivillas stream enveloping the walls of 
Badajoz, where, save for an occasional light, all was gloom 
and darkness. The batteries on either side were silent, 
and the rippling of the stream and the croaking ot innumer- 
able frogs in the neighbouring marshes were the only 
sounds to be heard 

At 9.25 all was in readiness in the 3rd Division — ^''the 
soldiers imencumbered with dieir knapsacks, their stocks 
oS, shirt collars unbuttoned, and trousers tucked up to the 
knee. Their tattered jackets, so worn as to render their 
regiments barely recognisable, and their ht^e whiskers 
and bronzed faces, which hard-fot^ht campaigns had 
changed from their natural hue, but, above all, theu: self- 
confidence, devoid of boast or bravado, gave them the 
appearance of what they were — an invincible host"* 

*Captain Gcattan. 

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The assault was to have been made at ten o'clock, but 
some time before then a lighted carcass thrown from the 
fortress discovered the 3rd Division to the French, who 
at once opened a heavy fire. 

Under these circumstances, Major-General Kempt, who 
was in temporary conmiand, gave the order to attack at 
once. With a shout of defiance to the French the Division, 
formed in one solid mass four thousand strong, charged 
forward, crossed the Rivillas, and sweeping up the rocky 
slope beyond raised their ponderous ladders against the 
castle walls. Every possible preparation had been made 
by the French to repel the attack. The defenders were 
provided with several muskets apiece, and with pikes for 
pushing back the ladders, as well as heavy beams of timber, 
large rocks, live shells, and hand grenades to hurl among 
the assailants. In spite of everything the stormers gallantly 
pressed up their ladders amid the rain of missiles from 
above and the hail of grape and case shot poured into them 
from the bastions on the flank, which, with the tremendous 
musketry fire from the ramparts, carried death and destruc- 
tion amid their ranks. 

An hour passed, however, without any impression being 
made. The ladders, with their living freights, were hurled 
to the groimd one after another, and the regiments of the 
3rd Division, " baffled but untamed," drew back to re-form 
their shattered ranks under shelter of the rugged edge of 
the hilL Returning again to the assault, their desperate 
courage at length achieved success. Colonel Ridge, of 
the 5th, succeeded in gaining a footing on the ramparts at 
a spot where their height was less than elsewhere, and an 
embrasure lent some assistance to the stormers. The foot- 
ing thus established was made good — ^more and more men 
forced their way into the castle, and at last, after hard fight- 
ing, the 3rd Division drove the enemy into the town, and 

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successfully resisting a counter-attack remained in posses- 
sion of the dtadeL Hitherto the enemy had succeeded in 
repelling the attack at the breaches, but the capture of the 
castle and the entry of the 5th Division into the town on 
the western side compelled them to give up the struggle. 
They retired in haste across the river, and Badajoz was in 
the hands of the Allies. 

In the assault the 77th had four officers and twenty-three 
men killed and wounded As the regiment was at the time 
very weak, this loss was considerable in proportion to its 
strength. The officers wounded were: — Lieut-General 
Picton, Lieut-Colonel Dunkin, Captain McLachlan, and 
Captain Clarke. 

On the 1 2th April the 3rd Division marched from 
Badajoz on its return to the north, the enemy having 
advanced and threatened Almeida. The route taken was 
by Campo Mayor, Villa Velha, Castello Branco, and Bd- 
monte to Sabugal, and the 77th occupied its old quarters 
at Forcalhos on the 24th. 

Principally through sickness, which to a very large extent 
was due to fever contracted during the deplorable Wal- 
cheren expedition, the regiment was very much reduced in 
strength, and it had been necessary some time before to 
send the colours to the rear at Castello Branco. 

There being now less than a hundred men left fit for ser- 
vice, die regiment was considered no longer fit to remain in 
the field, and it was accordingly ordered back to the base at 
Lisbon to recruit It must have been a bitter disappoint- 
ment to the regiment, after sharing for a few months only 
in the glories of the famous " Fighting Division," to be thus 
relegated to inactivity at the base, while their more fortu- 
nate comrades remained to participate in the victories of 
Salamanca and Vittoria. 

The regiment marched by the usual route— so well 

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known to officers and men of the Peninsular Army — ^past 
Castello BrancOi Villa Velha, Abrantes, and Santarem, and 
reached Lisbon on the i6th May. From the gth till the 
20th of June it occupied the Marquis of Pombal's palace 
at Oeiras, but on the latter date it returned to Lisbon, and 
was quartered in the barracks at Campo d'Ourique. 

On the 20th March, 1813, the regiment moved 

1813. from Campo d'Ourique, and took over quarters 
in the citadel of Lisbon, the ancient Castle of 

St George. It continued from time to time to receive 
reinforcements from the dep6t at home, and by October, 
18 1 3, had sufficiently recovered in strength to be considered 
fit to return to the front It embarked at Lisbon on the 
15th October, under Lieutenant-Colonel Bromhead, with a 
strength of 27 officers and 459 men, and landed at Passages 
on the 6th November. 

On the day of its disembarkation the regiment marched 
to Oyarzzum, where it shortly received orders to detach 13 
officers and 300 men to England as guards to French 
prisoners captured at Pamplona. The remainder of the 
regiment marched to St Jean-de-Luz on the 14th 
November, and joined the brigade commanded by Major- 
General Lord Aylmer. 

The 77th took no part in the actions on the Nive in 
December, and remained at St Jean-de-Luz till 

1814. the middle of February, 18 14, when, fine weather 
setting in, the Allied Army broke up from its 

winter quarters and resumed its advance. Having reached 
Bidart, a village some little distance south-west of Biarritz; 
on the 14th, it advanced on the 23rd with Lord Aylmer's 
brigade, which formed part of the left wing of the army 
mider Sir John Hope, destined to force the passage of the 
Adour and blockade Bayonne. Some smart skirmishing 
took place on the 33rd, 34th, and 25th, in which the regi- 

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ment took a leading part, driving in many of the enemy's 
picquets and co-operating in the operations leading to the 
passage of the Adour by the ist Division. 

On the 26th the regiment occupied the village of Anglet, 
two miles south-west of Bayonne, an important post in the 
line of investment now formed round the fortress. While 
here it was rejoined by the detachment sent to England as 
escort to prisoners of war. Siege operations s^inst the 
citadel of Bayonne, on the north side of the Adour, being 
commenced, the various brigades in Sir John Hope's corps 
were detailed in turn to take their tour of duty in the 
trenches, and the 77th crossed the river for this purpose 
on the 27th Mardt 

It, however, returned to the south bank some days later, 
and was on duty guarding the communications aoross the 
river on the 14th April, the date of the great sortie from 
the citadel of Bayonne, when so many lives were uselessly 
sacrificed on both sides. 

On the cessation of hostilities, which took place a few 
days later, the division to which the 77th was attached 
remained in the vicinity of Ba3ronne, and the regiment con- 
tinued there till the 24th August, when it marched to Pas- 
sages. On the 25th it embarked and sailed for Ireland 
being the last corps of the British Army to quit the Penin- 

nn 1818 H.R.H. the Duk* of Y<Mic. the Coiiimaadar4a.Cliia£. Mootioiied the i^ 
a recimeotal medal to non-eommissioiied officers and mea of the 77th who had served at 
Bl Bodoiu godad Rodrigo, Badajos, and Serintapatam. The offioial war medal Was aol 
issued till some tweoty years later. 

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1814— 1853. 

The Regiment lands at Cork — Cashel ~ Limerick — Galway* 
—Dublin— Moves to England— Rochdale and Sunderland— 
To Scotland— At Edinburgh during visit of King George IV. 
— Return to Ireland— Embarkation at Middleton for Jamaica 
—Severe losses from fever— The Regiment embarks for 
England after ten years in Jamaica— Lands at Portsmouth— 
To Edinburgh and Glasgow— Liverpool— Move to Ireland— 
Mullingar, Newry, and Dublin— Ordered on foreign service 
after less than three years at home— Embarks at Cork for the 
Mediterranean — Malta — Corfu — To Jamaica again — To 
Halifax, Nova Scotia— Service in Canada— Return to England 
—Landed at Portsmouth— Newport— Plymouth— Weedon— 

The regriment, consisting of 28 officers, 35 
1814. sergeants, 13 drummers, and 515 rank and file, 
under the command of Brevet Lieut-Colonel 
John Rudd, landed at Cork on the 8th and 9th September, 
and the following month marched to Cove (now Queens- 
town), where it occupied the forts and barracks 
1818. till May, 181 5, when it returned to Cork. In 
1816t February, 1816, it marched to Cashel, from which 
place it moved in November to Limerick. Gal- 
1818. way was the regiment's next station, the date 
of its move thither being June, 18 18, and while 
there it was visited in the summer of 1819 by 

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1819. Major-General Sir George Cooke, K.C.B.,* who 
had been appointed Colonel of the regiment on 

the death of Sir Thomas Picton at Waterloo. 

Sir George spent three weeks with the regiment, 
inspecting the discipline and interior economy, and on his 
departure annomiced in Regimental Orders "The great 
satisfaction he felt at having become personally acquainted 
with the regiment, of which he had the honour to be 
colonel, and how much he saw reason for approving every- 
thing he had witnessed relating to its good order and disci- 

In August, 1820, the regiment was relieved at 

1820. Galway by the S7th,t from Kilkenny and 
Clonmel, and marched imder Major Madaine, 

to Dublin, where it remained till the 13th November, when 
it embarked at the Pigeon House for Liverpool On arriv- 
ing in England &e headquarters were stationed at Roch- 
dale, and detachments at Stockport and Blackburn. 

Marching from these quarters the following 

1821. August, the regiment spent two months at 
Sunderland, and then proceeded in four divisions 

(by way of Newcastle, Carlisle, Longtown, MoflPat, and 
Hamilton) to Glasgow, where the headquarters arrived on 
the 6th November. 

In February the headquarters and flank onn- 

1822. panies marched to Edinburgh, and there being 
at this time no other infantry regiment in Scot- 
land, detachments were furnished to Stirling Castle, Dti2&- 

^Sir George Cooke joined the service as entign in the Ist Foot Guards in 1784, and 
served with his regiment in Flanders and Holland in 1994 and 1799. He afterwards 
•erred in Sioily and Wal^eren. and commanded at Cadis for some time during the 
Feninsnlar War. Incommand of the 1st Division he was present at Waterloo and lost 
his right arm on that memorable day. He was g a s ett ed K.C.B. on the 22nd June, 1815. 

t This appears to have been the onlj occasion price to 1879 on which the two 
regiments met. 

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barton Castle, Fort William, Fort Augusttis, Fort George, 
Glasgow, Paisley, and the Isles of Arran and Islay. In con- 
sequence of the expected visit of King George IV. to Scot- 
land, the regiment, with the exception of a small detach- 
ment at Fort William, was concentrated at Edinburgh 
Castle in July. A detachment, under Major Madaine, pro- 
ceeded to Dalkeith to furnish the infantry duties during 
the King's residence there, and the Grenadier company, 
under Captain Baird, furnished the guard of honour at Holy- 
rood House on His Majest/s arrival at the palace. A 
similar guard of honotir escorted the regalia of Scotland 
from the Crown Room to the barrier gate of the castle, 
where it was handed over to the officer of state appointed to 
receive it On the termination of the Royal visit six com- 
panies again proceeded on detachment 

The following December Colonel Bromhead retired from 
the service, after having commanded tiie regiment nearly 
fourteen years, and was succeeded in the lieutenant- 
colonelcy (by purchase) by Brevet Lieut-Colonel Mtqrdoch 

The regiment left Scotland in May, 1823, em- 

1823. barking at Port Patrick for Donaghadee, whence 
it marched to Belfast It remained at Belfast 

till October, and then marched to Dublin. A few days 
after its arrival in Dublin the regiment was warned for 
service in Jamaica, and directed to hold itself in readiness 
to mardi to Fermoy, where it was to await the arrival of 
transports at the Cove of Cork. It arrived at Fermoy on 
the 29th December, and three weeks later embarked at 
Middleton on board three West Indiamen — the " Beaufort," 
" Palambum," and " Dorothy Foster." 

Owing to contrary winds the transports were 

1824. detained in the Cove till the 14th February, 
when they at length set sail for Jamaica. The 

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headquarters, under Major Place, landed at Port Royal on 
the 30th March, and marched to Stony Hill, where they 
were shortly after joined by the rest of the r^^ent 

This was the first occasion on which die 77th had sdrved 
in the West Indies, and the regiment was destined to hare 
a bitter experience of the deadly epidemic prevalent there, 
which has robbed the British Army of so many thousands 
of gallant soldiers. 

A remittent fever of a very malignant nature 

1825. broke out in February, 1825, and continued to 
rage with but short intervals till September, 
when the r^^iment embarked at Kingston for Falmoudi* 
on the north side of the island 

By the 2 1 St September the regiment had suffered a loss 
of twelve officers — ^Brevet Major McKenzie, Captains 
Bowen, Piggott, and Jeffery ; Lieutenants Elliott, Faulkner, 
F. Corfield, Marshall, and Wilkinson ; Ensigns W. Clarke 
and Irvine; and Assistant-Surgeon Eraser— eleven ser- 
geants, four drummers, and 226 rank and file out oi less 
than 600 of all ranks who had landed in Jamaica eighteen 
months before. 

The regiment was quartered at Falmouth and 

1827. Maroon Town for over two years, and returned to 
the south side of the island in October, 1827, 

when it disembarked at Port Henderson and marched to 
the barracks at Spanish Town. From these 

1828. quarters it moved in November 1828, to Up Park 
Camp, where Lieut-Colonel Bradshaw assumed 

the command in succession to Lieut-Colonel Madaine, who 

died in November, 1828, after twenty-nine years* service in 

the regiment After spending a year at Up 

1828. Park Camp the 77th moved in November, 1829, 

to Fort Augusta and Kingston, headquarters and 

four companies being at the former. The number of ser- 

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vice companies was no^ only six (of 86 rank and file each) 
instead of eight, as at the time of the r^[imenf s arrival in 
Jamaica. The dep6t consisted of four companies (of 56 rank 
and file each) under a major, with a subaltern as adjutant, 
and formed a small battalion for home service. This was 
the organisation of infantry regiments on foreign service up 
to the time of the Crimean War. 

In January, 1831, the headquarters moved from 

1831. Fort Augusta to Stony Hill, where four com- 
panies were stationed, while the other two, under 
Captain Alger, moved to Port Antonio. Another detach- 
ment (4 officers and 100 men) to Kingston was furnished 
from headquarters in March. The r^^iment had another 
unhappy experience of Stony Hill. In tiie months of July 
and August the troops in Jamaica became generally un- 
healthy from the prevalence of malignant fever of a 
character more aggravated than usual. At Stony Hill the 
regiment suffered severely, and the disease appeared to be 
suoilar in its type to that which prevailed in 1825. During 
the quarter ending the 30th September the number of 
admissions to hospital was 98, out of which 23 cases termi- 
nated fatally. 

The season had been unusual, and far from natural, a 
long period of drought being followed by an equally ex- 
tended continuance of rain and fog. The principal sufferers 
were the healthy and robust— especially the last draft, 
which had been in the country about eighteen months. 
The Light Company lost men in the greatest proportion, 
and were moved to the Apostles' Battery in August, but 
without any improvement in their health resulting. The 
detachment at Port Antonio also suffered severely. 

An insurrection of slaves having broken out in the 
parishes of St James and Trelawney and other parts of the 
island at Christmas, the regiment was partially employed 

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in restoring order. Fifty men of the flank companies, under 
Major Wilson, and the two companies from Port Antonio, 
mider Captains Alger and Buchan, were engaged on this 
duty, and received the thanks of the parishes concerned 
for their services. 

In March, 1832, the regiment concentrated at 

1832. Spanish Town, and was re-distributed as follows : 
Headquarters and three companies at Spanish 
Town, two companies at Fort Augusta, and one at Stony 

King William IV. on succeeding to the throne caused a 
number of alteraticois to be made in the uniforms of the 
Army and Navy, and amongst othars the substitution of 
gold for silver lace in those of the officers of certain line 
regiments. The 77th when first raised had worn lecon- 
colotu: facings and silver lace. The former had been 
changed in 1820, when a uniform shade had been intro- 
duced for all regiments wearing yellow facings, and Hb^ 
silver lace now* gave place to gold. 

The regiment embarked at Port Henderson for a second 
tour of service in the north of the island on die 4th April 
1833, and disembarking at Montego Bay marched and 
occupied quarters at Falmouth and Port Antonio— head- 
quarters at the former. In August Lieutenant Powell and 
64 men of " D " Company were detached to Bidef ord, where 
they suflFered severely from the local fever. Sixteen men 
died, and with one single exception every man of the detach- 
ment passed through the hospital 

Having been nearly ten years in Jamaica, the r^^ent 
was ordered in October to be in readiness to 

1834. return to England. It embarked at Montego Bay 
on the 15th May, 1834, on H.M. troopship 
"Romney," and arrived at Portsmouth on the 23rd June. 

♦ Ut May, 1832. 

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The dep6t companies being already at Portsmouth, the 
whole r^^ent was now united under Colonel Bradshaw, 
and quartered in the Colewort and Cambridge Barracks. 
It was inspected on Southsea Common on the ist August 
by Lord Hill, General Commanding-in-Chief, who ex- 
pressed his approval of the appearance and tefiiciency of 
the corps after its long service in the West Indies. 

After a stay of less than two months at Portsmoudi the 
regiment re-embarked on the isth August on board the 
transport "Romney" for Scotland, and landed at Leith 
after a voyage of fifteen days. For some weeks it remained 
quartered in Edinburgh Castle, but on the 20th October it 
'marched thence for Glasgow, where it remained till the 
end of 1835. While at Glasgow the r^^ent 

1835. received new colours, which were presented to 
the corps by Major-General Sir P. Stewart, 

Commanding the Forces in North Britain, on the 
25th September, the anniversary of El Bodon. The 
colonel of the regiment was now Major-General Sir Archi- 
bald Campbell, Bart, G.C.B., who had been appointed (in 
December, 1834) in succession to Sir George Cooke, 
removed to the 40th Regiment 

On the 3rd and 4th November the 77th embarked at 
tiie Broomielaw, Glasgow, on board tiie steamers "Man- 
chester " and " City of Glasgow," and after a very tem- 
pestuous voyage, in which much suffering was experienced 
— two men died from the inclemency of the weather- 
landed at Liverpool on the 5th and 6th. Headquarters and 
two companies remained at Liverpool ; two companies were 
detached to Chester, three to Wigan, and three to Haydock 

The following year the regiment changed its 

1836. quarters three times. It embarked at Liverpool 
on the 25th March, landed at the North Wall, 

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Dublin, and marched to MuIIingar, where it remained till 
the 27th June, when, " by a sudden route," it marched to 
Newry, and occupied the barracks there, one company being 
detached to Downpatridc The next move was to Dublin, 
whither the regiment marched on the 30th September, 
arriving on the 4th October. It at first occupied quarters 
in Richmond Barracks, but moved to Beggars Bush, 
George Street, and Pigeon House Fort in May, 1837. 

At this time, owing to the limited number of 

1887. battalions in the British Army, the period of ser- 
vice at home was very short in comparison with 

that abroad, and the 77th had been less than three years 
at home when they were again warned for foreign service. 

In August the service and depdt companies were formed 
at Beggars Bush Barracks by Lieutenant-General Sir £. 
31akeney, KC.R, Commanding the Forces in Ireland, and 
in October the service companies embarked in steamers for 
Cork, leaving the dep6t at Pigeon House Fort The ser- 
vice companies remained in Cork Barracks till the end of 
November, and then embarked in H.M. transport 
" Jupiter," in which they arrived at Malta after a favourable 
passage of nineteen days. 

On first landing the headquarters were stationed at Fort 
Ricasoli and detachments at Fort Tigue and 

1888. Fort Salvatore, but on Ae 13th January the 
headquarters moved to Isola Gate and Francesco 

de Paulo and the Fort Tigue detachment was withdrawn. 
In January, 1839, the regiment moved from 

1889. the Cottonera district and occupied quarters at 
the Auberge de Castille and Lower St Elmo 

lines in Valetta. This winter H.M. the Queen Dowager 
Adelaide visited Malta, and the 77th furnished the guard of 
honour on the occasion of Her Majesty's landing, and on 
other occasions during her visit 

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In May the regiment was inspected by H.R.H. Prince 
George (afterwards Duke) of Cambridge, who expressed in 
very flattering terms his approval of its appearance and 

Lieutenant-General Sir J. Madeod, K.C.B., 

1840. was appointed colonel in February, 1840, vice 
Sir Archibald Campbell, transferred to the 62nd 

After a stay of sixteen months in Valetta the regiment 

was moved in May, 1840, to the Floriana Barracks, where 

it remained till the following year. While here 

1841. it was inspected (on the anniversary of the 
storming of Badajoz) by General Lord Lynedoch, 

who complimented the regiment in the most flattering 
terms on its appearance, movements, and steadiness under 

In May, 1841, the regiment moved to the Auberge de 

Bavaria and Lower St Elmo Lines, in which quarters it 

passed the remainder of its service in Malta, em- 

1842. barking for Corfu in February, 1842. Prior to 
its departure the Governor, Sir H. F. Bouverie, 

KC.B., expressed his approbation of its appearance, good 
order and discipline while in his command. 

While at Corfu the headquarters were at the Citadel, and 
one company in the island of Vido, but the stay of the regi- 
ment in these quarters was of le^s than a year's 
1848. duration, as in January, 1843, it embarked in 
H.M. troopship " Resistance " for a second tour 
of service in Jamaica. The "Resistance" met with very 
rough weather in the S|priiterranean, and was as much as 
twenty-five da}^ reaching Gibraltar. A fortnight was spent 
at the " Rock," and the voyage resumed on the ist March, 
Port Ro3^ Jamaica, being at length reached on the last 
day of that month. On the 6th April the r^ment landed 
for inspection by Major-General Berkeley, commanding in 

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Jamaica, who highly commendc(l4lie appearance and steadi- 
ness of the corps, which praisQ was particularly gratifying 
considering the regiment landed for this inspection at a 
few hours* notice after nearly three months at sea. Imme- 
diately after the inspection the regiment returned on board 
the "Resistance," and on the 13th sailed for the north side 
of the island. 

Arriving in Montego Bay (where it had embarked for 
England in 1834) the following day, it disembarked at sun- 
set on the 15th, when the headquarters marched to Maroon 
Town, two companies being detached to Falmouth and one 
to Lucca. 

For the following two and a half years or so 

1844-5. the ^ph remained in these quarters, and during 
this period eflfected great improvements in the 
cantonments at Maroon Town. New roads were formed, 
the bush cut down to a considerable extent, swamps drained 
and cleared, and a large garden enclosed and cultivated 
for the use of the troops. All these works contributed to 
the good appearance of the place and to the health and 
comfort of the garrison. 

On the 2ist January, 1846, headquarters and 

1846> three companies marched from Maroon Town 
and embarked at Montego Bay for Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, where they arrived on the 22nd February, the other 
three companies following two months later. In June 
detachments were sent to Cape Breton, Prince Edward's 
Island, Annapolis, Windsor, and York Redoubt, but these 
were withdrawn in August on receipt of orders for the 
regiment to embark for Canada. 

Embarking at Halifax in H.M.S. " Belleisle " on the 2nd 
September, the regiment reached Quebec on the loth of 
that month, and was conveyed in steamers up the St Law- 
rence to Montreal, whence it marched in two divisions to 

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St John on the Richelieu Biver, arriving on the 14th and 
17th September. 

In June, 1847, notification was received from 

1847. the Horse Guards that the regiment was shortly 
to return to England, and in August it moved to 
Montreal, where it was stationed awaiting em- 

1848. barkation. During the elections at Montreal in 
January, 1848, serious disturbances occurred, and 

the 77th were employed in preserving order, being under 
arms in most inclement weather day and night on the i ith 
and 1 2th of that month. In a General Order by Lieut- 
General Sir Benjamin D'Urban, Commandii^ in British 
North America, it was stated that " the duty, owing to the 
intense cold, was trying in the extreme, and the troops per- 
formed it with the utmost patience, forbearance, and good 
will" In the same General Order the Lieutenant-General 
desired " also especially to praise the energy, firmness, and 
sound judgment of Major Egerton, of the 77th Regiment, 
and the services of the two divisions of that Corps tmder 
his immediate orders, commanded respectively by Captains 
Griffiths and Forbes, which restored order in the town at 
two critical periods of riot and confusion.'' 

The regiment continued to serve in Canada till the 22nd 
May following; when it sailed from Quebec in the "Bom- 
bay" transport for England. Previous to its departure 
the Commander of the Forces expressed to Major Egerton 
in a General Order " his unqualified approbation of the high 
state of discipline, order, and good conduct in all regards " 
of the regiment 

The " Bombay" entered Portsmouth Harbour at daylight 
on the 26th June, and the service companies of the 77th 
having disembarked a{ the Royal Clarence Victualling Yard 
proceeded that evening by special train to Winchester. 

The dep6t compainies were at this time at Cork awaiting 

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transport to England in the "Bombay." The stay of the 
service companies at Winchester was of very short duration, 
as in consequence of sudden orders they moved on the 24th 
July to Portsmouth, where they arrived at half-past nine at 
night The dep6t having landed from the " Bombay " the 
same afternoon, the whole ten companies were again united 
and quartered in the Royal Clarence Barracks. 

On the 5th August Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson, 
who had recently been in command of the depdt, was pro- 
moted to the command of the regiment, vice Colonel Brad- 
shaw, who, after upwards of forty years* service in the 77th 
(during twenty of which he had held the command) was 
compelled by failing health to retire on half-pay. 

Owing to his long service Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson 
was promoted to an unattached lieutenant-colonelcy and 
brought back to the command of the r^^ent without pur- 
chase in the same Gazette. He, however, only held the 
command of the 77th for a few months, and ex- 

1849. changed with Lieutenant-Colonel George 
Duberly, of the 64th, the following March.* 

Her Majesty the Queen being at this time at Osborne, 
the regiment had constantly during its stay at Portsmouth 
the honour of furnishing the guard to Her Majesty at the 
place of embarkation. 

By a happy coincidence it fell to the lot of the r^^ent 
to furnish the first g^ard which had ever mounted over the 
person of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales on the 
occasion of His Royal Highness proceeding unaccompanied 
by the Queen and Prince Consort from Osborne to Windsor 
on the 13th October, 1849, when the standard of the Prince 
of Wales was first displayed since the reign of King George 

*ColoDel Wilton eommaQded the 6«Ui ia tht llntiiiy and wm kUlad in aotiOQ u 1 



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] at Jiv 
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1. !^ . 

t lU •; 

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I J I- 1 r. -C o! o^ ■• '. i 

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III. The young Prince, seeing his own plume emblazoned 
upon the Queen's Colour of the Regfiment, was pleased to 
command that the Colour should be brought to him to look 
at, which was accordingly done by Major Egerton, who 
commanded the guard. The other officers on this duty were 
Captain Crofton, Lieutenants Leslie and Wallack. 

After remaining nearly two years in the garri- 

1850. son of Portsmouth, the regiment left that station 
for South Wales and Monmouthshire in the 

spring of 1850. The headquarters started on the 22nd 
April, and proceeded by rail as far as Salisbury, whence 
they marched by Heytesbury to Bath. From Bath they 
travelled by train to Bristol, and embarked there on 
steamers for Newport, where they arrived on the 25 th. 
Detachments were sent to Pont-y-Pool, Swansea, Car- 
marthen, Cardigan, and Pembroke Dock. While in these 
quarters Major Egerton succeeded to the lieutenant- 
colonelcy, vice Colonel Duberly, who retired in December, 
1850, and Major-General George Brown, C.B. (then 
Adjutant-General) to the colonelcy, in place of Sir John 
Macleod who died on the 3rd April, 1 85 1 . 

On the i6th April the headquarters left New- 

1851. port for Devonport. The several detachments 
followed at intervals up to the ist May, when 

the regiment was distributed between the various barracks 
in Devonport and the Citadel of Plymouth, with detach- 
ments at Pendennis Castle, St Nicholas Island, Maker 
He^hts, and the Convict Prison at Dartmoor. 

Colonel Love, Commanding the South Wales District, 
issued a very flattering order on the r^;iment's departure 
from his command, in which he expressed the great satisfac- 
tion yvidch had been afforded him at the recent half-yearly 
inspection '* from the good order and high state of discipline 
in which he found the regiment, not only at the head- 

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quajters, but in every detachment — a convincing proof of 
the exceUent S3^tem which prevailed in the corps " ; also 
his approval of the "'uniform good conduct of the corps 
sincSe it had been in that district, and his personal regret at 
it being removed.'' 

At the end of July the regiment moved from Devonport 
into the Citadel at Plymouth, and during the autumn the 
various detachments rejoined on relief by the 19th 

From Plymouth the regiment moved in 

1852. August, 1852, to Weedon, where it relieved the 
93rd Hig^ilanders. One company was detached 
to Wolverhampton, and on the 30th August the band and 
flank companies proceeded to Derby for duty during the 
stay there of Her Majesty the Queen and Royal Family on 
their way to Scotland A similar guard was furnished by 
the 77th at Wolverhampton on Her Majesty's return. 

The following autumn the reorganisation of the Militia 
under the Act of the last Session of Parliament gave ample 
employment to regiments of the line, who were called upon 
to furnish drill instructors in great numbers to aid them 
in this, their first training since Waterloo. Amongst others, 
parties of the 77th were attadied to the Northampton, War- 
wick, Lincoln, Rutland, and Huntingdon Militia. 

On the occasion of the funeral of the Duke of Wellington 
on the 18th November, it was the express command of Her 
Majesty the Queen that each regiment of the British Army 
should be represented by a detachment The 77th was 
represented by Lieutenant-Colonel Graham Egerton, Cap- 
tain Alexander Aitken, Lieutenant William Rickman, a 
sergeant, corporal, and six men. The party left Weedon 
on the 13th November, and was billeted in Paddington. 

After taking part in the parade at Chelsea Hospital on 
the 17th— when for the first time detachments of every 

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corps of the British Army appeared tc^ether— and the 
funeral procession from the Horse Guards' Parade to St 
Paul's, the party returned on the 22nd. 

The regiment remained at Weedon till April, 
1853. 1853, when it moved to Glasgow, where by a 
curious coincidence it relieved the same regi- 
ment (the 82nd) as in 1835. 

Three companies were detached to Paisley and a subal- 
tern's party to Dumbarton Castle. 

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The Crimea. 

The Regiment suddenly warned for active service—Embarks at 
Liverpool for Malta— Leaves Malta for Turkey— At Scutari — 
Joins the Light Division— Lands at Varna— In Bulgaria- 
Sails for the Crimea and disembarks in Kalamita Bay — Battle 
of the Alma— Advance on Sebastopol— Capture of the Castle 
of Balaclava— Commencement of the Siege— Battle of Inker- 
man— Sufferings and losses during the winter— Capture of the 
Rifle Pits and death of Colonel Egerton- Unsuccessful assault 
—Death of Lord Raglan— Gallantry and death of Captain 
Pechell— Fall of Sebastopol— Destruction of docks and build- 
ings. An armistice established— Conclusion of Peace— Evacu- 
ation of the Crimea— The 77th sails for England. 

On the 1 2th February a letter of readiness was 
1854. received for the regiment to embark for Malta, 
with a view to its forming one of the corps 
intended for employment on active service in the 
dominions of the Sultaa This order was promptly followed 
by the recall of the several detachments, with the exception 
of that at Paisley, and 100 volunteers were called for, from 
the dep6ts forming the provisional battalion at Chatham, 
to augment the ranks. These were speedily obtained, and 

*T1m efaapter in the ofBdal reginiMital noofds lelatiiig to the Crimetn CamptJgn 
it ihren ia full ezoepting tome imimpoctant cetomt and details. 

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the regiment was then formed into eight service companies, 
comprising 850 rank and file, and two depdt skeleton 
companies, made up of invalids, and men unfit for active 

On the 28th February the regiment marched out of 
Glasgow, amidst the acclamations of countless thousands, 
and proceeded by two special trains, vi4 Carlisle, to 
Preston, picking up the companies from Paisley on the 
way. Arriving at Preston the same night, it proceeded to 
occupy Fulwood Barracks until required for embarkation. 
Here it was met by 50 additional volunteers from the 35th 

On the loth of March, at an early hour, the headquarters 
and seven of the service companies proceeded by one 
enormous train of the East Lancashire Railway Company, 
to Liverpool, where it was received by the Mayor and 
Municipal Authorities, by whom a sumptuous dinner had 
been prepared for the officers. At the request of the 
authorities, the regiment formed a square within the 
Exchange, to present arms, and give three hearty cheers 
for the Queen, which were responded to far and wide by 
all classes. Proceeding to the docks, it embarked on board 
the Australasian Pacific Mail Company's screw steamship 
"Kangaroo,** a new iron vessel, and in the course of the 
night the camp equipage and stores were put on board, and 
every preparation made for sailing next morning. 

The strength embarked was : — 

Lieutenant-Colonel T. G. Egerton. 

Major R. J. Stratoa 

Major G. Dixon. 

Captain W. Forbes. 

Captain E. C. T. Croftoa 

Captain B. O'Brien. 

F 2 

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Captain G. H. S. WilKs. 
Captain H. R. Cardea 
Captain W. W. G. Dilke. 
Lieutenant T. O. Foster. 
Lieutenant G. Leslie. 
Lieutenant J. Nicholsoa 
Lieutenant H. Kait 
Lieutenant B. D. Gilby. 
Lieutenant R. Walmesley. 
Lieutenant W. M. C Actoa 
Lieutenant C. H. France. 
Lieutenant R. B. Willington. 
Ensign W. J. Cardea 
Ensign F. Alder. 
Ensign A. Lempriere. 
Ensign A F. Maine. 
Ensign M. W. Dicksoa 
Paymaster W. T. Scott 
Lieutenant and Adjutant W. Rickmaa 
Quartermaster J. R. Breading. 
Surgeon J. S. Prendergast 
Assistant Surgeon C. Macartney. 

37 sergeants, 13 drummers, and 742 rank and file. 

Owing to want of room on board the " Kangaroo " one 
company had to be left to follow later. It consisted of : — 
Captain F. Kennedy, Lieutenant E. H. Chawner, Ensign 
F. J. Butts, 4 sergeants, i dnunmer, and 80 rank and file. 
Assistant Surgeon R. C Burton was left with this 

Captain John Hackett, who had joined the staff of the 
army destined for Turkey, was the only officer belonging 
to the service companies absent 

The officers left with the dep6t companies were: — 

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Captains H. J. Wallack and W. PecheU, Lieutenants H. St 
George and A. M. Richards, Ensigns C. H. Massy and W. 
A. M. Orpen. 

At 8 o'clock on the i ith of March, 1854, the " Kzxig^oo," 
slowly threading her way through the crowd of shipping in 
the docks and river, commenced her outward voyage. In 
the Irish Channel she encountered a very heavy gale of 
wind, which continued without abatement for several days, 
diujng which the men suffered a good deal from the 
crowded state below and the want of ventilation. Five out 
of the eight ofi&cers* chargers embarked died within a few 
hours of each other from stress of weather, three belonging 
to Lieutenant-Colonel Egerton, one to the adjutant, and 
one to the surgeoa 

On the 19th of March, the " Kangaroo " steamed by the 
Rock of Gibraltar, and the troops in garrison at Europa 
Point cheered heartily as she passed At daylight on the 
24th the regiment arrived in Malta Harbour, and the same 
evening disembarked at the Dodqrard, and proceeded to 
encamp at St Clements, near the Zubbar Gate, where the 
44th Regiment was already under canvas. On the 31st 
March, the regiment struck tents, and proceeded to occupy 
temporary quarters at the Rope Walk, near Isola Gate, 
which had originally been fitted up for the 2nd Battalion of 
the Rifle Brigade. The rooms were of that extent, that 
two were made to contain the whole ' corps, 680 men 
sleeping with comfort in one. 

On the 8th of April, the company left in England, 
arrived out by the " Cambria " steamship, and on the 9th 
the r^^ent embarked on board the Peninsular and 
Oriental Compan/s steamship " Indus " (which had put in 
disaUed on her outward voyage to Alexandria with the 
Indian Mail), and in tow of the '' Cambria,'' containing a 
wing of the 49th Regiment, left under sail the same 
evening for the Dardanelles. 

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The "Himalaya" steamer left Malta about the same 
time with the 33rd and 41st Regiments for the same 

On the 14th the'' Indus " passed up the Dardanelles and 
anchored at Gallipoli. Orders were awaiting the regiment 
to proceed at once to the Bosphorus together with all 
troops subsequently arriving; the British contingent at 
Gallipoli being limited to the division already disem- 
barked consisting of the 4th, 28th, 44th, soth, 931:^^ and 
2nd Battalion Rifle Brigade. 

On the isth, at sunset, the "Indus" and " Cambria '* 
continued their voyage across the sea of Marmora, and 
about 8 o'clock on the following morning, the minarets of 
Stamboul were in sight By noon the ships had anchored 
at Unkiar Skalessi on the Asiatic side, nearly opposite 
Therapia, and about 14 miles above Constantinople. No 
disembarkation was here made ; as from the absence of all 
preparations on shore, it was evident that some alteration 
had taken place in the views and intentions of the British 

Towards evening, orders arrived to return to Constan- 
tinople and disembark at Scutari, where the 33rd and 4i8t 
had already landed. The disembarkation was effected on 
the 1 6th, and the regiment went into a portion of the 
barracks lately erected by the Sultan near the beach. 
Immediately on landing the regiment was inspected by 
His Highness the Seraskier Pacha, or Minister of War, who 
was pleased to express his astonishment that troops 
''coming from the sea*' should appear so clean and 

The arrival of fresh troops from England caused the 
regiment to vacate the barracks, and on the 25th April it 
encamped outside Scutari, and with the 88th and 95th 
Regiments, formed the brigade under Brigadier-General 

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1st Brigade under 
Richard Airey. 

2nd Brigade under 
George Buller, CB. 


Pennefather, CB. On the 4th of May two companies 
marched for Kuledi, a station about four miles up the 
Bosphorus, where they encamped, and were employed in 
assisting to disembark the guns and horses of the Royal 
Horse Artillery. This duty was accomplished in a fort- 
night, when they returned to headquarters. 

Upon the arrival of General Lord Raglan to assume the 
command of the forces, a fresh distribution of the troops 
took place, and a Light Division, formed under the 
command of Lieutenant-General Sir George Brown, con- 
sisting of — 

7th Royal Fusiliers. 
23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers. 
33rd The Duke of Wellington's 

19th Regiment 
77th Regiment 
88tE Connaught Rangers. 
2nd Battalion Rifle Brigade not brigaded, reporting 
direct to the General of Division. 

The purchase of bit horses was now the main object, 
and by the exertions of the officers they were soon pro- 
cured, although at very high prices for Turkey. The other 
preparations for taking the field were also completed with- 
out delay. It having been determined at this period, that 
the regiment should be entirely armed with the Minie 
rifled muskets, the percussion firelocks were delivered into 
store at Constantinople on the 25th May, and the new arms 
issued the same day. 

On the 29th of May the Light Division embarked for 
Varna, and sailed in an hour afterwards. 

At an early hour on the 31st May the regiment disem- 
barked in the boats of H.M.S. '^ Bellerophon " and of a 
French line of battle ship, and encamped on the extreme 

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left of the division about two miles outside the town. In 
the inunediate neighbourhood were numerous French 
troops, including a r^^ent of Zouaves, under Major- 
General Canrobert, and the Egyptian contingent, which 
contributed to the bustle and es^dtement of the scene. 

The Light Division remained at Varna until the 5th of 
June, on which day it marched to Aladyn, a small village 
about 10 miles from Varna, where it encamped in the 
middle of a charming wooded country. The Division con- 
tinued at this encampment until the 30th of June ; and 
among other incidents connected with its stay here was a 
review of the troops by Major-General Canrobert, com- 
manding the French troops (in the absence of Marshal de 
St. Amaud), who came from Varna for that purpose, with 
Lieutenant-General Sir George Brown. The admixture of 
the French and English staffs had a very pleasing effect ; 
and not the least novel part of the scene was that whilst 
the advanced portion of the escort was composed of the 
8th Hussars, the rear guard consisted of a party of French 
Carabiniers. The cortege was warmly received at the 
camp, and at the close of the day, the regiments in succes- 
sion took off their caps and cheered our allies lustily. 

On the 30th of June, the division struck tents, and con- 
tinued its march to the heights near Devna, about eig^t 
miles beyond Aladyn and 28 from Schotmila. 

July 4th. — ^The Light Division was inspected by Omar 

July 6th. — The 77th Regiment furnished a guard of 
honour over Omar Pacha whilst he dined with Sir George 
Brown. The band of the regiment attended and played 
during dinner. The Pacha was pleased to express himself 
much gratified with the performance. 

July 2 1 St. — ^The cholera attacked the Light Division and 
carried off several men in a few hours. 

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July 22nd — The cholera still on the increase. 

July 23rd — The cholera increasing rapidly through the 
division; upwards of eighty men died to-day. The 77th 
Regiment as yet remained untouched 

July 24th.— Struck tents at daylight, and marched to 
Monastir for the purpose of changing air and ground 

July 26th. — ^Ensign Massey arrived from England, with 
a draft of one hundred mea The first victim to cholera in 
the 77th Regiment died this morning, No. 1876 Private 
Richard Herrop. 

July 27th. — ^The Light Division b^^ to practise the 
duty of entrenching. 

July 31st — ^Ensign Massey died of cholera, after a few 
hours' illnesis. 

August 1st — ^In consequence of the spread of the 
cholera, the sale of wine in the canteens was prohibited 
and half a ration of rum issued to the troops daily instead 

August 9th. — ^The cholera still canying off great 
numbers^ the 77th Regiment struck tents, and marched to 
the high, open ground above Pravadi, where a wide camp 
was pitched. 

August 12th. — Captain Dilke died of cholera 

The regiment was employed during its stay near 
Pravadi in constructing trenches and other si^;e works, 
also in making gabions and fascines. Rifle practice was 
carried on every day. 

August 27th. — ^Struck tents and marched to the ground 
which had been previously occupied by the 2nd Division, 
en route to Varna, to embark for the Crimea. 

August 28th. — Continued the march and encamped to 
the north-east of Aladya 

August 2gth. — Continued the march and encamped 
within two miles of Varna. 

August 30th. — ^Marched to the south side of the Bay of 

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Varna and embarked on board .H.M.S. "Magaera," a steam 

September 5th. — Steamed up to Baltchick Bay and 

September 7th. — Took our sailing transports in tow, and 
stood out with the whole fleet towards the Crimea. 

September loth and nth. — ^The fleet at anchor in the 
Black Sea, out of sight of land, weather perfectly calm. 

September 12th. — ^Stood on towards the Western Coast 
of the Crimea. 

September 13th. — ^Anchored oflf Eupatoria, which sur- 
rendered, and was taken possession of by the aUies. 
Weighed anchor at midnight and stood to the southward. 

September 14th. — Landed at Old Fort, Kalamita Bay, 
with the Light Division, at about 9 o'clock a.m. The 
division met with no opposition whatever in landing, and 
was immediately formed up in contiguous columns at 
quarter distance, right in front, but the men were not 
allowed to load. Sir George Brown was nearly made a 
prisoner by some Cossacks whilst making a reconnaissance. 

The whole of the infantry of both armies was got ashore 
without any loss. 

The Light Division marched to the southward at about 
4 o'clock p.m. and bivouacked at about six miles from the 
landing place and 26 miles to the north of SebastopoL The 
First Division came up in an hour afterwards and took up 
a position on om: left During the night the 2nd Division 
came up and occupied ground in our rear. The French 
army was on our right The whole of the baggage and 
tents were left on board ship ; the troops lay down, in the 
open air, exposed to heavy rain during the night 

September 15 th, i6th, 17th, and i8th. — ^Remained on the 
same ground without seeing the enemy. 

September 19th.— Marched at daylight towards Sebas' 

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topol, and crossed the Bulganac at about 2 o'clock p.m. 
The men suffered severely from thirst during the day, and 
the division was halted on the south side of the river to 
refresh them. They were soon ordered to stand to 
their arms, and advanced to the crest of the heights of the 
Bulganac, where they were drawn up in a line of 
contiguous columns, right in front, at quarter distance, 
supported by the 2nd Division. 

A skirmish was going on, on the sloping ground in our 
front, between our cavalry and that of the enemy, supported 
by a battery of artillery. A battery of our Horse Artillery 
came up and opened a well-directed fire on the enemy, who 
immediately limbered up and retired. 

We bivouacked on the heights of the Bulganac that 

September 20th. — Under arms at daylight in the 

The Light Division marched about a mile and a half to 
the right of the ground they had occupied during the night 
where they halted, piled arms, and lay down for about two 
hours. They then stood to their arms and advanced in 
double column of companies from the centre, covered by 
the 2nd Battalion of the Rifle Brigade, and commenced 
their march to the Alma. 

As we approached the river, we saw the enemy drawn up 
in a strongly entrenched position on the opposite heights, 
and we computed his force to be from fifty to sixty 
thousand men. 

His shot began to fall thickly among us at 2 o'clock 
p.m., when Sir George Brown halted the division and 
deployed into line. The village of BourUouk, which was in 
front of our right, had been set on fire by the enemy, and, 
at this time, was blazing fiercely. The enemy appeared to 

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have the range accurately, for every shot fell near or 
amongst us. 

We were ordered to advance to an old wall, on our left 
of the burning village, and to lie down and shelter our- 
selves, as well as we could, from the fire of the Russians. 
There we had remained for about twenty minutes, when 
we received orders to advance through the vineyards, and 
cross the river. This was done in good order under a 
heavy fire. 

When the regiment advanced up the steep on the left 
bank of the river we had neither cavalry nor artillery to 
support us. Being the left battalion of the Light Division, 
our left flank was totally uncovered, and we found our- 
selves in the presence of a heavy column of the enemy^s 
infantry, which was about 500 yards in advance of otnr 
extreme left 

Lieutenant-Colonel Egerton immediately wheeled the 
light company to the left, and forming No. 7 upon it to 
protect our flank, he opened a heavy and effective fire, with 
these two companies, upon the Russian column. 

In about an hour after we had crossed the river the 2nd 
Brigade of the ist Division came up to our assistance, 
upon which the Russian column immediately retired, and 
the left brigade of the Light Division received orders to 

The victory was won, for the French had turned the 
left flank of the enemy, and were sweeping the Russians in 
every direction from off the heights on the right, while the 
English were advancing and forcing them from their 
position on the centre and left 

At 4 o'clock p.m. the Light Division stood triumphant on 
the heights of the Alma, and saw the Russian army, an 
unseemly mob of fugitives, with troops of all arms mixed 
together, crowding the road to SebastopoL 

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The loss of the regiment in this battle was small, 
amounting only in killed and wounded to twenty. No 
officer killed. 

20th of September, 1854. — ^Extract from Regimental 
Orders dated 20th September, 1854. ''Heights of the 

" The regiment will bivouac upon ground which will be 
pointed out by the Lieutenant-General Commanding the 

" No fires or Ughts to be suffered on the reverse flank on 
account of the artillery ammunition being stowed in that 

''Nominal returns of the killed and wounded in the 
action of this day to be rendered without delay." 

" The arms and accoutrements of non-effectives will be 
handed over to the Commissaiy of Ordnance^ at Head- 

" The service ammunition to be completed the first thing 
in the morning." 

"Parties wSl be sent out to-morrow, of the strength 
detailed by the Assistant Adjutant-General, to assist in 
burying the dead on the field of battle." 

" Advantage to be taken of the halt, for the men to wash 
their persons and linen in the river." 

2 1 St and 22nd of September, 1854. — ^Bivouacked on the 
Heights of Alma. 

September 23rd — ^Marched at daylight towards the 

Crossed that river and bivouacked on the hei^^ts to the 
south of it 

The general order, thanking the army for its conduct at 
tiie Alma, was read this day to the Light Divisioa 

September 24th. — Crossed the Belbec, and bivouacked 
within a few miles of the north side of SebastopoL 

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September 25th. — ^Marched through the woods to the 
south-east and arrived at midday at McKenzie's Farm, 
where the advance of the English army came in collision 
with the rear guard of a Russian army which was marching 
to Simpheropol. The enemy fled without making any 
resistance, leaving an immense quantity of ammunition 
and baggage in the hands of the English. The carriage of 
Prince MentschicoflF, the Russian Commander-in-Chief,, was 
taken, and the Prince himself had a narrow escape of being 
made a prisoner. 

The enem/s ammunition was immediately blown up. 

The Light Division continued its march, and, descending 
the heights of McKenzie's farm into the Valley of the 
Tchemaya, crossed that river at Tractir Bridge, and 
bivouacked on the heights above it 

September 26tB. — Marched for Balaclava. 

The division was halted about two miles from the town, 
and the men were ordered to take off the blankets which 
held their kits. The 1st Brigade was then directed to take 
possession of the heights on the right side of the harbour, 
and the 2nd Brigade marched up, left in front, to attack 
the castle on the left side. 

The 77th Regiment was in advance, and having lined 
the steep above the castle, which completely commanded it, 
they opened a heavy fire on the Russian gunners, who 
made a stout defence for about twenty-five minutes. A 
battery of English Horse Artillery came up, and fired 
several rounds at the castle, and,H.M.S. "Agamemnon" 
was sending her shot and shell into it from outside the 

At last the Governor hung out a white flag, and the 
firing ceased. Lieutenant-Colonel Egerton went down 
with the Light Company of the regiment to take posses- 

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sion of the castle, and the Governor surrendered his sword 
to him. 

Lord Raglan shortly after rode into Balaclava and 
declared that the four mortars with which the Russians had 
defended the castle were the lawful prize of the 77th 
Regiment Some prisoners were taken, but most of the 
garrison made their escape by crossing the harbour to a 
place which was afterwards called Cossack Bay. 

Captain Crofton died of cholera and was buried in the 
plain of Balaclava. 

The Light Division bivouacked outside the town of 

September 27th and 28th. — Bivouacked near Balaclava. 

September 29th.— Marched to within two miles of 
Sebastopol on the south-west side, near Colonel Upton's 
house, which was occupied by one of our advanced 

September 30th. — ^Remained on the same ground. 

October ist — ^The French and English armies changed 
places. The Light Division marched to the ground which 
it occupied till the end of the war, with its left resting on 
the WoronzoflF Road; below the picquet house hill, and its 
right upon the ravine near the windmill 

Enemy firing heavily on us, but without eflfect. 

October 2nd and 3rd. — ^Enemy firing on us heavily from 
their shipping. 

October 4th. — ^Enemy firing heavily on us. 

Lieutenant Walmesley died to-day of cholera -on board 
the " Medway " transport. He was buried at the head of 
Balaclava Harbour. 

October sth. — Got up a few of our tents, enemy still 
firing heavily on us. 

October 6th, 7th, and Sth. — ^Enemy firing heavily on u& 

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October gth. — Moved our camp 300 yards to the rear to 
get out of the range of the enemy's guns. 

October loth. — The r^;iment on duty all night in the 
Middle Ravine. 

October nth. — ^Broke ground at night for the first 

October 12th, 13th, 14th, and isth. — Settled before 
Sebastopol for the siege, the r^;iment taking its turn of all 
duties, such as working parties, covering parties to the 
workmen, outlying picquets, etc> etc 

October 16th. — ^Thc whole regiment on duty in the first 
parallel at Green HilL At noon the Russians ran up a red 
flag at the Bastion du Mat, which was answered by every 
battery along the whole line of fortifications of Sebastopol 
They then poured in a terrible fire on us of every descrip- 
tion of missile for twenty-five minutes, but without doing 
us much harm, for only nine men were hit in the whole of 
Chapman's battery and the adjacent trenches. Our guns 
were all ready to open next morning, and the batteries 
masked, and no doubt the enemy thought that we would 
answer his fire, but he was mistaken. As yet we had not 
fired a single shot at Sebastopol 

October 17th. — The r^;iment was relieved from trench 
duty before daylight, and fire was opened by the allies 
against Sebastopol at about half -past six o'clock a.m. 

Our cannonade was very eflFective. The round tower 
was soon destroyed, though the earthwork batteries around 
it were not silenced. Between i and 2 o'clock a large 
magazine blew up in the centre of Sebastopol, and between 
2 and 3 o^dock another Russian magazine blew up in the 
Redaa An explosion also took place near the remains of 
the round tower between 3 and 4 o'clock. Towards 
evening our fire was superior to that of the enemy, and at 

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dark the Russian guns were silenced Our fire then 

The fleet attacked Fort Constantine, but we could not 
hear of the results. 

October i8th. — The cannonade was resumed early this 
morning. The Russians' fire was superior to ours during 
the day, but our loss, nevertheless, was very small. 

Received intelligence this day that Lieutenant Alder had 
died at Scutari on the 6th inst 

October 19th. — The cannonade was continued to-day. 
At 3 o'clock we observed a fire in Sebastopol, but it was 
soon put out 
October 20th. — Cannonade continued 
October 2ist^ — Cannonade continued without much 
effect, for the enemy repairs in the night all the damage 
done to his earthworks during the day. We saw two fires 
in Sebastopol to-day. 

October 22nd — ^A heavy cannonade going on all day, 
and skirmishing with our sharpshooters, who are sent 
forward to keep down the fire of the enemy's batteries. 

They killed and wounded several Russians to-day, and 
took some prisoners. One officer was brought into our 
camp shot through the jaws. He was unable to speak, and 
was placed in the old post house, on the Woronzoff Road, 
for medical treatment 

October 23rd — Cannonade all day. 
October 24th. — ^We hear that the Russians are in a very 
bad state, and that the town is much damaged by our fire ; 
however, they have more guns than we have, and their fire 
is superior to ours. 

October 25th. — Heard a heavy cannonade in our rear, 
and we were informed that a Russian army was attacking 
Balaclava. We could see nothing whatever of what was 
going on, for we were called to arms immediately. 

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The Fourth Division was marched down to the plains of 
Balaclava, and the 77th Regiment was ordered up to 
Cathcart's Hill to take chai^ of their camp. We remained 
there all day, and heard that our heavy dragoons had 
completely defeated the enem/s cavalry, but that our light 
cavabry Imd been nearly annihilated The Russians did 
not succeed in forcing the position. 

The 77th Regiment sent 300 men as a working par^ 
into the trenches of the left attack to-night 

There was great cheering in SebastopoL The Russians 
opened a heavy cannonade on our trenches, and they were 
throwing bright balls at us all nig^t 

October 26th. — A strong body of the enemy made an 
attack on our right to-day, but they were repulsed with 
great slaughter by the Second Division, under Sir De Lacy 
Evans. The igth and 77th Regiments were out together 
to watch the middle ravine, but they took no other share in 
the combat 

We are losing men every day by sickness and in the 

October 27th. — Cannonade not so heavy as usual 
During the night a great number of horses, with cavalry 
accoutrements on, but without riders, galloped through our 
camp. Nobody knew where they came from, but about 
two hundred of them were caught, and found to be the 
horses of Russian dragoons. An of&cer secured one and 
found a good supply of clean linen, etc, etc, in the valiscv 
which had evidently belonged to a Russian officer. He 
was not allowed to keep the horse. They were all taken 
for the public service. 

October 28th. — ^A despatch from the Duke of Newcastle 
thanking the army in the Queen's name for their conduct 
at the Battle of the Alma was published to-day. A copy 
of Lord Raglan's despatch regarding the batde has also 

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been seen in the newspapers from England Everybody is 
gratified with it, and the army considers that full justice 
has been done them. Lieutenant-Colonel Egerton and all 
the officers commanding regiments in the Light Division 
have been honourably mentioned. 

The cannonade going on as usjiaL A body of Turks 
came up and encamped in rear of the Light Division. 

October 29th. — Cannonade going on as usual 

October 30th. — The same. 

October 31st — ^Very little fire from our batteries to-day. 
The weather is very cold and sickness increasmg. 

November ist — ^The cannonade going on as usual The 
French are firing very sharply on the left 

November 2nd. — The Russians opened an unusually 
heavy fire on our trenches this morning. We did not 
quicken our fire, but the cannonade went on as usual 

November 3rd. — The French are firing heavy guns into 
the town, and doing great damage to the buildings. 

November 4th.— The cannonade going on as usual, one 
of the outlying picquets of the Light Division reported to- 
night that they heard the sound of wheels coming out of 
Sebastopol, and approaching their position, but nothing 
was thought of it It rained heavily during the nig^t 

November sth. — ^The Light Division was called to arms 
before daylight this morning. There was a heavy 
cannonade and a sharp firing of musketry going on, on our 
rig^t, on the heights of Inkerman. 

The 88th R^^ent was immediately marched off 

towards the combat, and in about ten minutes after the 

77th Regiment was ordered to follow. The regiment only 

consisted of the four companies of the right wing, as the 

four companies of the left wing were either on outlying 

picquet or on duty in the trenches. We did not take the 

a 2 

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colours with u% for we could spare no officers to carry 

The following officers were present in the battle: — 
Lieutenant-Colonel Egerton, Majors Straton and Dixon, 
Captains Willis and Nicholson, Lieutenants Acton and 
Lempriere, Ensign and Adjutant Morgan, and Assistant 
Surgeon Humphrey. 

The regiment was marched off by fours right in front 
As we passed through the camp of the Second Division we 
came under a heavy fire of the enem/s artillery. The 
tents were down, the horses killed at their pickets, and the 
camp was a scene of ruin and desolatioa 

We moved on through the camp to take up our position 
on the left of the Second Division, which was then hotly 
engaged. The regiment was wheeled to the right under a 
slight inequality of the ground, halted, fronted, and dressed 
m line. Brigadier-General BuUer, C.B., Captain Clifford, 
his A.D.C., and Captain Glynn, the brigade-major, were 
with the regiment at this moment 

We advanced to the crest of the rising ground, and 
found ourselves in the presence of an enormous column of 
the enem/s infantry, who were coming on with loud shouts, 
evidently flushed with success, and thinking that they were 
about to carry the camp of the Second Division. 

We came like an apparition among them, but their 
numbers were so great that they were soon swarming 
round our flanks, and crowding in our rear. The front of 
the column was not five yzxds from us when Colonel 
Egerton gave the word " Give them one volley on the knee 
and load." The men dropped on the knee, and poured a 
close volley into them with great precision. The Minie 
bullets tore through their heavy column from front to rear, 
and shook them to their centre. 

Our men rose up and loaded their rifles with as much 

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steadiness as if they were on parade. G>lonel Egerton 
then gave the words " Prepare to Charge •* — '* Charge.'* 

The r^;iment rushed forward with a loud cheer, and 
threw themselves like tigers upon the enemy. The 
Russians met the attack bravely, crossing their bayonets 
with ours with the most determined resolutioa A 
desperate contest ensued, but soon terminated in our 
favour, for the enemy could not stand the fury of our men. 

The mass began to waver and reel ; their muskets went 
up into the air, and they fairly turned and fled, impeded in 
their flight by the rear divisions of their own columa 
Then a terrible scene of slaughter took place, for our men 
plied them fiercely both with fire and steel ; and driving 
them throu|^ the oak copses in our front they sent the 
broken remains of their shattered column headlong down 
a small ravine, about 450 yards from where the fight 

The regiment halted here and dressed by the centre. 

A pretty large body of Russians had assembled in our 
rear, so we were faced to the right about and moved 
towards them, while the enem/s artiUery, apparently 
r^^dless of their own people, were throwing shot, shell, 
and^ grape among us in every directioa When we 
approached the infantry we again leveUed our bayonets 
and charged them ; they made no resistance to speak of, 
but fled round our flanks, for we were very weak, and quite 

Thus we had won the ground we had f ou|^t for. It was 
never relinquished during the day. 

Captain Nicholson was killed in the first charge, while 
bravely leading on his company, and we lost several 
valuable non-commissioned officers and men. 

We here heard the news that Sir George Brown had 
been carried off the field dangerously wounded 

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The enemy had an immense number of heavy guns in 
position, which never ceased firing on us during the day, 
except when his columns of inf antiy were advancing to the 
charge. They were invariably defeated and driven back 
with slaughter. The fire from our Minie rifles tore their 
columns to pieces at a distance which rendered their 
smooth bored muskets useless, and it is said that they were 
glad to advance and tiy conclusions with the bayonet, to 
escape from the volleys which were destroying them by 

Brigadier-General Buller had two horses killed under 
him, and being woimded himself he was forced to quit the 

Lieutenant-Colonel Egerton rode up to Brigadier- 
General Pennefather and said: ''Sir Geoi^e Brown and 
General Buller are wounded, and there is no one left to 
command the Light Division ; I beg to place the remains 
of the 77th Regiment under your command and at your dis- 
posal'' The General answered : " Occupy that height on 
your right ; it has been thrice crowned by the enemy, and 
thrice they have been driven back with the bayonet I have 
not a single man of my division left to defend it, and 
Seventy-Seventh, my old friends, my last hope is in you." 

We had not a cartridge left, but the regiment was imme- 
diately moved up, and lay down in line, under the crest of 
the height 

Presently a battery of French artillery came up. We 
made gaps in our line for their eight guns, and they opened 
a well directed fire, which was responded to promptly and 
fiercely by the enemy. A few minutes after the French 
guns had opened, the 7th French Regiment of the Line 
appeared, and taking up a position on our right lay down 
in line with us. This cheered us greatly, for we said that 
our Allies had come to our assistance, and it was reported 

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through the regiment that the French were attacking the 
left flank of the Russians in force and turning it 

In the meantime the shot and shell of the enemy were 
ploughing through our ranks, and killing the horses and 
gunners of the French artillery. But well and faithfully 
diose gallant men did their duty, and never ceased their 
fire till they had expended their last cartridge, when they 
were obliged to limber up and retire for more ammunition. 

The joyful news now came that the enem/s infantry was 
retreating, covered by his artillery which, still in the same 
position, continued to pour its iron hail upcm us with un- 
diminished fury. 

At this period Lieutenant Acton was detached with one 
company to assist in defending a wall, which had been built 
across the road from the valley of Inkerman. When he 
arrived there were two Russian guns on a neighbouring 
height, firing grape into the English troops which were 
stationed at the walL Lieutenant Acton was ordered to 
charge the guns along with the remains of three companies 
of the 49th Regiment This was done immediately. The 
men had to pass over about 150 yards of ground before 
they reached the guns, and as they were advancing the 
Russians fired three rounds of grape into them. The 
enemy did not wait for the English infantry, but went off 
with his guns at a gallop, leaving a great quantity of 
ammunition, his limbers, and several wounded horses behind 
him. The ammunition was blown up and the limbers 

Whilst this was going on the ammunition pomes of the 
Light Division came up to the remainder of the regiment, 
and each man's pouch was filled. We were then moved 
down to our left to protect a battery of English artillery 
which was firing on the retreating Russians. When we 
reached them they had only three rounds left ; this was soon 

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expended, and the battery limbered up and retired The 
enemy's artiUery was still firing at us, but in about half an 
hour the cannonade grew fainter, and soon after it died 
away. The Russian infantry had got into Sebastopol imder 
cover of their guns, and the artillery were in full retreat 
after them. 

Though the left wing was not actually in the battle, yet 
they suflFered from the fire, from the position of Inkerman, 
and the increased fire from the fortifications of SebastopoL 

The Russians made a heavy sortie on the French 
trenches, but they were driven back with great slaughter, 
and the French followed them almost into the town. 

In the Battle of Inkerman the right wing of the 77th 
Regiment lost one officer killed and 59 non-commissioned 
officers and men killed and wounded 

It was evening when we returned to our camp» having 
been relieved on the field of battle by an English r^[iment 
which had taken part in the action. Lord Raglan met the 
77th Regiment near the windmill, and rode at its head for 
some time conversing with Colonel Egerton on indifferent 
subjects. He never alluded to the events of the day, and 
did not seem in the least elated 

The regiment wore great-coats at Inkerman ; it was a 
rainy, misty day. They left the camp without their break- 
fast, and they had not a morsel to eat during the whole of 
the day. 

November 6th. — ^The Light Division called to arms. A 
report having been spread that the enemy was coming out 
of Sebastopol to attack us. This was not true. 

The remains of Captain Nicholson were buried to-day 
along with those of 20 non-commissioned officers and men 
who fell gloriously in the action of yesterday. We could not 
find any more of the dead, though the field of battle was 
carefully searched for them. 

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November 8th. — Captain Pechell joined to-day. 

November 14th. — ^The camp was blown down by a hurri- 
cane this morning, which came from the south-east, accom- 
panied by sleet and snow. Our loss was very great, and the 
sick suflFered severely, for their tents were blown away. 

The " Prince " steamer was wrecked at Balaclava to-day. 
She had on board our warm clothing for the winter, and, 
among other things, 750 pairs of trousers were lost 

A heavy cannonade to-night The division turned out 
as usual and marched up to the picquet house hilL It was a 
sortie against the French lines. The enemy was beaten 

November 21st — ^Lieutenant Maine died in camp to-day 
of fever. 

November 29th. — A draft from England consisting of 
Captain Rickman, Ensign Knight, Ensign Long, two ser- 
geants, and one hundred rank and file arrived at Balaclava 

November 30th. — ^The cannonade was not so heavy 
generally as it used to be, but there was heavy firing on 
the French to-day. 

It is said that the Grand Duke Michael made a reconnais- 
sance of our position to-day. 

Sickness is on the increase. The weather is very bad, our 
dothes are all worn out, and provisions are very scarce. 

December 2nd. — ^The Russians made a sortie on our 
trenches. They were beaten back without doing us much 
hana There is no means of transport between Balaclava 
and the front We send a hundred men down daily to carry 
up provisions for the following day. 

Both officers and men are on very short allowance, and 
there is no fuel to cook the little food we have with us or 
to roast the green coffee. 

December 20th. — ^The Russians made a sortie on our 

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trenches. They carried some of our advanced works in 
the first instance^ but were speedily beaten back. 

December 31st — ^During this month a copy of Lord 
Raglan's despatch r^;arding the Battle of Inkerman arrived 
in the Crimea. 

Colonel Egerton and Majors Straton and Dixon were 
mentioned in it for " distinguished service in the field," and 
the two latter officers were promoted in consequence to 
the rank of brevet lieutenant-colonel, dated 12th December, 


General Sir George Brown, G.C.B., the General of the 
Light Division, was removed during this month from the 
colonelcy of the 77th Regiment, to the great regret of every- 
one in it He was succeeded by Lieutenant-General 
George Leigh Goldie, C.B., dated 22nd December, 1854. 
January 15th. — ^The Russians made a sortie 

1855. up the Woronzoff Road, and on our right and 
left attack. They were driven back after an 
hour's hard fighting. 

January 17th. — ^The remainder of our Wit horses, whidi 
were left at Varna, have arrived. They are of great use 
bringing up supplies. 

January 24th. — ^The French took over all the picquets 
and redoubts at Inkerman. The Second Division was sent 
to take trench duty in the right attack, and to assist the 
Light Division. 

January 25th. — ^Lieutenant Richards arrived with a draft 
of 250 men. 

January 27th. — Completed the first of our wooden huts 
to-day, and gave it over as a hospital. 

January 28th. — ^The Russians made a sortie on the 
French, but they were repulsed after hard fighting with 
great slau|^ter. 

January 31st — ^It is said that a Russian spy walked 

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through oiir trenches to-day in the disguise of a French 
ofRcer. He counted the guns, and having obtained the 
information he wanted he slipped off down the Woronzoff 
Road under a heavy fire of musketry, through which he 
escaped apparently unhurt 

February 4th. — The Russians made a sortie on our 
trenches before daylight, but were beaten back. No 
damage done. 

February 12th. — Sir George Brown returned to-day, and 
resumed the command of the Light Division. 

February 24th. — ^Lieutenant the Honourable John Col- 
borne, with a draft of 52 men, arrived from England. 

March ist — Commenced more active siege operations. 

March 6th. — ^Heard of the death of the Emperor Nicholas. 
The enemy fired imusually heavily on us. 

March loth. — ^The Russians commenced the redoubt on 
the Mamelon. 

March nth, 12th, and 13th. — ^All the Light Division out 
as working and covering parties, constructing new trenches 
from the old advance work to the middle ravine. 

Suffering severe loss. 

March 14th. — ^The enemy made a sortie to drive us out 
of our new works, but he was beaten back. 

March 22nd — ^The Russians made a heavy sortie on the 
French works near the Mamelon, and on our right attack. 
They penetrated into our works as far as the right mortar 
battery and the ditch of the eight gun battery, but they 
were driven back at the point of the bayonet, with great 
slaughter on both sides. The fighting was going on all 
night along the whole of the trenches. 

Sir George Brown was pleased to express his satisfac- 
tion at the admirable way the 77th Regiment behaved in 
this sortie, and Captain Rickman, who commanded the 
party, was mentioned in Lord Raglan's despatch for " dis- 

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tinguished service in the field," and promoted to the rank 
of brevet-major, dated 24th March, 1855. 

March 24th. — ^An armistice to bury the dead. The enemy 
appears to have lost about six times as many as both French 
and English put together. The Russian officers conversed 
with great civility with their enemies. They were much 
better dressed than our officers. The moment the white 
flags were hauled down the firing re-commenced on both 

March 31st — ^The establishment of the r^^ent having 
been increased, the following promotion appeared in the 
" London Gazette," viz. : Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Robert 
Jocelyn Straton to be lieutenant-colonel without purchase, 
dated Qth March, 1855. 

April 2nd — ^The Russians made a sortie to interrupt our 
working parties in the right attack. They were beaten 

April Qth. — ^A heavy fire was opened at daylight from all 
our guns and mortars. 

The French also opened fire from all their guns. 

There were 386 pieces of ordnance in the French and 
English attacks. 

April iitL — Surgeon Macartney, M.B., died in camp to- 

April 13th. — ^The Russians made two sorties on the 
French to-night They were beaten back each time with 
great loss on both sides. 

April 14th. — ^The renewed fire from our batteries, which 
commenced on the 9th inst, is now reduced to an occasional 

The French have gained about fifty yaids of ground to 
the front, but we have gained nothing by the bombardment 

April 19th. — ^A party of the regiment under the com- 
mand of Colonel Egerton, consisting of Captain Gilby, Cap- 

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tain Chawner, Captain Lempriere, Lieutenant Elnight, Lieu- 
tenant Long, and 250 men, was ordered into the advanced 
trenches o£ the right attack for the purpose of taking two 
rifle pits from the enemy. 

The party took up a position in the left boyeau of the old 
advanced works between six and seven o'clock in the even- 
ing, and waited there till Colonel Egerton considered it 
sufficiently dark to attack the pits, which were not more 
than fifteen yards from the boyeaiL 

When the proper time had arrived the party advanced 
rapidly to the nearest and largest pit, and firing one volley 
they rushed into it, and drove the Russians out, after a 
desperate resistance, at the point of the bayonet 

The second pit was captured as quickly. 

The party then advanced about fifty )rards and lay down 
in skirmishing order to protect the pits, while the Eng^eers 
connected them with the left boyeau. 

For three hours the enemy kept up a terrible fire, of all 
arms, upon our men. Captain Lempriere fell mortally 
wounded. Colonel Egerton lifted him up, carried him 
into the bo)reau, and then immediately returned to his 

Towards the morning the enemy had organised a strong 
colunm of infantry, which advanced to endeavour to retake 
the pits. As they approached the 77th Regiment, the men 
sprung to their feet, and both parties charged eadi other 
with the bayonet The Russians were beaten back, but 
they rallied and returned to the charge again. Again they 
were driven back with greater slaughter than before, and 
again they renewed the attack, but with no better success, 
till at last, completely defeated, they retired within their 
works, leaving the 77th masters of the field. 

At this moment, as Colonel Egerton was pointing out the 
flying Russians to Captain Chawner, he was struck in the 

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mouth by a rifle bullet, which, carrying away four of his 
front teeth, passed through the spine at the back of the 
neck, and he fell dead. 

April 20th. — The rifle pits were fully connected and forti- 
fied this morning, ^od the Army commenced the fourth 

April 2 1 St — ^The remains of Colonel Egerton, Captain 
Lempriere, and six men of the 77th, who fell gloriously at 
the taking of the rifle pits, were buried to-day in the grave- 
yard of the regiment on the left of the Woronzoff Road 
near the Picquet House. Lord Raglan and his staff, 
General George Brown, and most of the generals and 
officers of rank in the Army, attended the funeral 

Lieutenant-Colonel Straton, who was absent on sick 
leave, succeeded to the command of the regiment and 
Brevet-Lieutenant-Colonel Dixon succeeded to the second- 

April 29th. — ^The first message was received from 
England to-day by electric telegraph in seventeen hours 
and a half. 

May gth. — ^The first division of the Sardinian Army 

May xoth. — ^The Russians made a sortie on our lines 
before daylight this morning, but they were beaten back 
with great slaughter. 

May ixth. — ^The Russians made another sortie on the 
left attack last night ; they were again beaten back with 
great slaughter. 

May 2xst — ^The second expedition for Kertch embarked 

May 2Sth. — ^The Allies made a general advance and took 
up the line of the Tcherraya. 

June 6th.— Opened fire from all our batteries. The AlUes 
had 4S7 ?UQS and mortars in positioa 

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June 7th. — ^The Mamelon and the Sapoune redoubts 
taken by the French. 

The quarries and the rifle pits in front of the Redan 
taken by the English. The Russians returned six times 
during the night in great force to Vetake them, and six 
times they were beaten back with great slaughter, and pur- 
sued dose up to the Redan, which at that time had but few 

June 8th. — Cannonade going oa 

June gth. — ^Heavy cannonade going oa The French 
began to fire a few shots from the Mamelon at the enemy. 
The Russians hoisted two white flags, and asked for an 
armistice to bury the dead It was granted from i to 6 
o'dock p.m. 

Jime 17th. — Opened a heavy fire at daylight, which was 
continued during the day. 

A draft consisting of Lieutenants Simpson and Dodd, one 
sergeant, and 50 rank and file arrived from Malta to-day. 

June 18th. — ^Sebastopol assaulted by the Allies. The 
English attacking the Redaa The assault was un- 

June 24th. — ^The Adjutant-General of the Army, Major- 
General Estcourt, died of cholera to-day. 

June 28th. — ^The Commander-in-Chief, Field-Marshal 
Lord Raglan, G.C.B., died of cholera to-day. 

" Morning General Orders." 
Head Quarters before Sebastopol, 

June 29th, 1855. 

No. I . — ^It becomes my most painful duty to announce to 
the Army the death of its beloved Commander, Field- 
Marshal Lord Raglan, G.CB., which melancholy event took 
place last nig^t at about 9 o'dock. 

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No. 2. — ^In the absence o£ Lieutenant-General Sir George 
Brown the command of the troops devolves on me, as the 
next senior officer present, until further orders are received 
from England. 

No. 3. — Generals of Divisions and Heads of Depart- 
ments will be pleased to conduct their respective duties as 

(Sd.) J. SIMPSON, Lieutenant-General. 

The last notice Lord Raglan issued to the Army was on 
the day of his death, viz. : — 

"The Field-Marshal has the satisfaction of publishing 
to the Army the following extract from a telegraph despatch 
from Lord Panmure dated 22nd June. 

"'I have Her Majesty's commands to express her grief 
that so much bravery should not have been rewarded with 
merited success, and to assure her brave troops that Her 
Majest/s confidence in them is entire.' " 

Towards the end of June, Sir Geoi^e Brown resigned 
the command of the Light Division and returned to 
England He was succeeded by Major-General Cod- 

Lieutenant-Colonel Dixon, completely broken down in 
health by hardships and severe duty in the trenches, was 
obliged to embark for England on sick leave about the 28th 
June, 1855. 

July 5th. — Lieutenant-Colonel Straton returned from sick 
leave, and assiuned the command of the regiment to-day. 

August 30th. — ^For the trenches this evening, four cap- 
tains, four subalterns, 20 sergeants, and 505 rank and file. 

Fifty men of the above party were sent forward under 
Captain Pechell to a boyeau which was being constructed 
at right angles to the fifth parallel under the proper left 
face of the Redan. 

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About two hundred Russians made a sortie, to drive the 
workmen away from the boyeau. They had nearly suc- 
ceeded in their attempt when Captain Pechell at the head 
of his party charged them with the bayonet, and after an 
obstinate contest he defeated them, and recovered some 
gabions which they had taken. The Russians were 
handled so roughly in this encounter that they did not 
return during the night, and Captain Pechell held the 
boyeau, under a severe fire, till morning, when he was 
reUeved by a party of the 97th K^^ent 

This was considered such a gallant feat of arms that 
Captain Pechell was honourably mentioned by the 
Commander-in-Chief in his despatches for his conduct on 
the occasion, and, no doubt he would have been promoted 
to the rank of breyet-major had he lived, but most unfor- 
tunately for the r^[iment and the Service, he was killed on 
the very same spot four nights after. 

September 3rd — For the trenches this evening, 4 
captains, 5 subalterns, 20 sergeants, and 500 rank and file. 

When this party arrived in the trenches the General in 
Command was very anxious to have some sentries posted 
in advance of the boyeau, which Captain Pechell had 
defended so gallantly a few nights before. 

Captain Pechell inmiediately volunteered that duty, and 
his services were accepted. He went out with a sergeant 
and four double sentries, hd^ing to gain the shelter of an 
old wall for his men, before the enemy occupied it, for the 
ni|^t ; but the Russians were there before him, and as the 
English party approached they fired one volley, which 
killed Captain Pechell, Sergeant Laughlin, and two men, 
and wounded three others. 

The enemy held the waU and an adjacent rifle pit for the 

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September 5th. — ^All the allied batteries opened fire on 
Sebastopol at daylight 

The fire from the English batteries had been kept up 
with great steadiness since the 17th August The English 
had two hundred and four guns and mortars, and, it is said 
that the French had upwards of four hundred The 
cannonade was as rapid as the file firing of a line of 

The remains of Captain Pechell and his brave comrades 
were buried to-day. 

A Russian frigate was burnt to-night 

September 6th. — Cannonade going on with great fury. 

September 7th. — Cannonade going on with the same 
fury. Another Russian ship was burnt 

September 8th. — The cannonade going on with greater 
fury than ever, till about noon, when the general assault 
upon Sebastopol was delivered. 

The part the Light Division took in this assault cannot 
be better described than in the following extracts from the 
despatch of the Commander-in-Chief, dated 

" Before Sebastopol, 
" September Qth. 
"My Lord, 

"I had the honour to apprise your Lordship in my 
despatch of the 4th inst that the engineer and artillery 
officers of the allied armies had laid before General 
Pelissier and xnysel{ a report recommending that the 
assault should be given on the 8th inst, after a heavy fire 
had been kept up for three days. 

" This arrangement I agreed to, and I have to congratu- 
late your Lordship on the glorious results of the attack 
yesterday, which has ended in the possession of the town, 

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dockyards, and public buildings, and destruction of the last 
ships of the Russian Fleet in the Black Sea. 

"Three steamers alone remain, and the capture or 
sinking of these must speedily follow. 

" It was arranged that at twelve o'clock in the day the 
French columns of assault were to leave their trenches and 
take possession of the Malakoff and adjacent works. 

"After their success had been assured and they were 
fairly established, the Redan was to be assaulted by the 
English. The Bastion Centrale and Quarantine Forts on 
the left were simultaneously to be attacked by the French. 

" At the hour appointed our allies quitted the trenches, 
entered and carried the apparently impr^[nable defences 
of the Malakoff, with that impetuous valour which 
characterises the French attack, and having once obtained 
possession they were never dislodged. 

" The tricolour planted on the parapet was the signal for 
our troops to advance. 

"I determined that the Second and Light Division 
should have the honour of the assault, from the circum- 
stance of their having defended the batteries and 
approaches against the Redan for so many months^ and 
from the intimate knowledge they possessed of the ground. 

"It was arranged that the assaulting column of i,ooo 
men should be formed by equal numbers of these two 
divisions, the column of the Light Division to lead, that of 
the Second to follow. 

" They left the trenches at the preconcerted signal, and 
moved across the ground preceded by a covering party of 
200 men, and a ladder party of 320. 

" On arriving at the crest of the ditch, and the ladders 

being placed, the men immediately stormed the parapet of 

the Redan^ and penetrated into the salient angle. 

" A most determined and bloody contest was here main- 

H 2 

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tained for nearly an hour, and although supported to the 
utmost, and the greatest bravery displayed, it was found 
impossible to maintain the positioa 

" Your Lordship will perceive by the long and sad list of 
casualties with what gallantry and self-devotion the 
officers so nobly placed themselves at the head of their men 
during this sanguinary conflict I feel myself unable to 
express, in adequate terms, the sense I entertain of the 
conduct and gallantry of the troops. 

" The evacuation of the town by the enemy was made 
manifest during the night Great fires appeared in every 
part, accompanied by large explosions, under cover of 
which the enemy succeeded in withdrawing his troops to 
the north side, by means of the raft-bridge, recently con- 
structed, and which they afterwards disconnected and 
conveyed to the other side. 

" The men-of-war were all sunk during the night 

" It now becomes my pleasing duty, my Lord, to place 
on record the high sense I entertain of the conduct of this 
army since I have had the honour to conmiand it 

" The hardships and privations endured by many of the 
regiments during a long winter campaign are too well 
known for me to comment upoa 

"They were borne both by officers and men with a 
patience and unmurmuring endurance worthy of the 
highest praise, and which gained them the deserved 
applause and sympathy of their country. 

"I have, etc, etc, 

"(Signed) James Simpson, 

" General Commanding. 

" The Lord Panmure, 
" Etc, etc, etc/' 

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The 77th Regiment lost in killed one captain, two 
colour-sergeants, three sergeants, and eighteen rank and 
file at the assault on the Redan, and had four officers and 
forty-two non-commissioned officers and men wounded 

We had to lament the death of that brave and excellent 
officer, Captain William Parker, who was shot through the 
neck with a musket ball, dose to the ditch. Two valuable 
and efficient colour-sergeants, viz., Thomas Maher and 
John Fitzharris, who had served with the most determined 
resolution and endurance through the whole campaign, 
were also killed. 

The names of the wounded officers are as follows, viz. : 

Captain Frederick Butts. 

Lieutenant George Leggett 

Lieutenant and Adjutant Marcus A. Waters. 

Lieutenant Charles Knowles. 

October 17th. — Kinbum taken by the allies, with 
seventy pieces of ordnance, and thirteen htmdred prisoners. 

The enemy still in great force on the north side of the 
harbour of Sebastopol and along the heights opposite 
Inkerman and McKenzie's ridge. They fire heavily upon 
our working parties, and picquets in Sebastopol — particu- 
larly at Fort Paul — and also send occasional shots across 
the valley of the Tchemaya. 

Lieutenant Charles Ernest Knight died in camp on the 
2nd of October, 1855. 

November 12th. — Major-General Lord William Paulett, 
C.B., assumed the command of the Light Divisioa 

November 15th. — ^The camp of the Light Division was 
thrown into some disorder by a great explosion of a French 
magazine, near the right siege train, containing, it is said, 
30,000 kilogrammes of powder, 600,000 cartridges, 300 
chai^d shells, and other projectiles. 

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This explosion caused a violent conflagration in our 
right siege train, and hurled death and destruction over 
the Royal Artillery, and the camp of the Light Division. 
The windmill, which was full of cartridges, took fire, and 
blazed fiercely for some time, but the flames were extin- 
guished by parties of the /th Fusiliers and the 2nd 
BattaUon of the Rifle Brigade, who behaved with the 
greatest gallantry. The Light Division was immediately 
called to arms, as it was thought that the enemy would 
attack our position. 

It is stated that the casualties in the Royal Artillery 
amounted to seventeen killed and thirty-five wounded 

December 15th. — ^Lieutenant Basil Browne died in camp 

December 28th. — Major the Hoa Augustus Chichester 
joined the regiment to-day. 

January. — ^During the siege the regiment was 

1856. increased to sixteen companies, which were 
distributed as follows, viz.: Eight service com- 
panies with the headquarters of the regiment before 
SebastopoL Four companies formed the reserve at 
Malta, and four companies formed the dep6t at Parkhurst, 
Isle of Wight 

The magnificent docks of Sebastopol were completely 
destroyed in January, 1856. 

On the 15th January, 1856, the service companies of the 
regiment subscribed £$2 8s. 6d for the testimonial to Miss 

February 4th. — Fort Nicholas was blown up to-day by 
an explosion of 120,000 lbs. of powder. 

Feteuary nth. — ^Fort Alexander was blown up to-day 
by three explosions. 

February 25th. — ^A grand review of a large portion of 
the British Army took place to-day near the Tel^^fA 

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Hill Forty-six battalions of infantry were present. The 
troops marched past Marshal Pelissier and Sir William 
Codrington in open column^ and afterwards in quarter 
distance column^ upon different ground 

February 28th. — The white buildings were blown up to- 

We heard that an armistice had been agreed upon. 

February 29th. — Deputies from the Allied and Russian 
Annies met to-day at Tractir Bridge, and arranged a truce. 

The following orders were issued to the army, viz. : — 

"On 4th March, 1856. 

"Pending discussions for the establishment of an 
armistice, by land, with the Russian forces, imtil the 31st 
March, there will be no firing on the part of the English 
army upon the enemy. 

"Ofi&cers and all other persons connected with this 
army are positively ordered to make no attempt to pass any 
of the outposts of the AlUed Armies." 

" On the 5th March, 1856. 

" The line of the aqueduct, running along the left bank 
of the TcherDzyB, River, has been fixed as the line of 
demarcation, beyond which it is positively ordered that no 
ofi&cer or soldier shall pass except on special duty. 

" The Conmiander of the Forces trusts to the military 
feeling of ofi&cers, and of all ranks, to respect the line of 
neutrality thus established; and calls upon them to 
moderate a very natural curiosity and to obey with alacrity 
the orders of the sentries posted by the French and 
Sardinian Armies." 

" On the 2nd April, 1856. 

" The Treaty of Peace with Russia was signed on the 
30th Mardi at Paris. 

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"The present line of demarcation between the armies 
will continue to be strictly observed" 

The proclamation of peace was received by the British 
Army with a salute of one hundred and one guns, fired by 
the field batteries of the Light and Second Divisions. 

On the Qth April, 1856, the following General Order was 
issued, viz. : — 

" The English Army is no longer restricted from passing 
the Tchemaya. All officers are to be present in camp at 
night, and all non-commissioned officers and men to be 
present in camp at the usual roll calls, unless they are m 
possession of written passes from their commanding 

April 17th. — ^The whole of the French and English 
Armies present in the Crimea were reviewed to-day by the 
Russian Commander-in-Chief, General Liiders, who was 
attended by a numerous staff. 

The English Army was drawn up on the plateau in front 
of its own headquarters. General Liiders rode down the 
whole line, inspecting the troops with great attention, and 
appeared very much pleased with their appearance. He 
then took his place at the saluting flag, and the whole army, 
37,000 strong, marched past him, the infantry being in 
quarter distance column right in front There was only 
one regiment of cavalry, the nth Hussars, present 

On the 29th April, 1856, the following General Order 
was issued, viz. : — 

" It will be agreeable to the Army to know that it is the 
honourable wish and intention of the Russian Authorities 
to preserve scrupulously the burial places and monuments 
of those, our countrymen, who have died in the Crimea. 

"The terms used in a despatch are, that the Imperial 
Government will consider this a sacred duty, and General 
Liiders, in an order to the Russian Army, mentions that he 

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is persuaded that after the evacuation of the positions 
occupied by the allies, all the troops which remain in the 
Crimea will regard with respect the tombs and monuments 
of those who have died on the field of battle.'' 

May 1st — Great preparations going on for the evacua- 
tion of the Crimea by the Allies. 

June 1st — The regiment still in camp before SebastopoL 

June 15th. — The regiment marched to Kazatch at day- 
light this morning, and embarked for England on board 
H.M.S. "Queea** 

The loss of the regiment during the war was fifteeu 
officers and eight hundred and ninety-seven non-commis- 
sioned officers and men. 

The names of the officers who embarked at Kazatch on 
board the *' Queen " are as follows, viz. : — 

Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Jocelyn Straton, CB. 

Major the Hoa A. G. C. Chichester. 

Captain Henry Macdonald. 

Captain Edward Chawner. 

Captain Richard WiUington. 

Captain Frederick Butts. 

Captain William Orpen. 

Captain George Garden. 

Captain the Hon. John Colbome. 

Lieutenant H. M. L. Colquhoun. 

Lieutenant George Leggett 

Lieutenant John Simpson. 

Lieutenant and Adjutant M. A. Waters. 

Lieutenant Charles Knowles. 

Lieutenant Aubury Butts. 

Lieutenant Charles Saunders. 

Lieutenant Harcourt Bengough. 

Paymaster William F. Scott 

Sui^^eoa Edward I* ranklyn, M.D. 

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Assistant Surgeon Robert G. Burton, M.D. 
Assistant Surgeon William Faleolojus. 
Quartermaster Henry Blissett 

The strength of the r^^ent was 39 sergeants, 15 
drummers, and 683 rank and file. 

Two companies of the Royal Artillery, under the 
command of Brevet-Major Adye, two companies of the 
42nd Highlanders, under command of Brevet-Major 
Graham, and the goth Light Infantry, under the command 
of Colonel Campbell, C.B., embarked on board the 
'' Queen " the same day, making, with the officers and crew 
of the ship, 2,500 persons. 

The " Queen " sailed for England on the evening of the 
15th June, 1856, in tow of H.M.S. " Terrible," and, touching 
at Constantinople, Malta, and Gibraltar, anchored at Spit- 
head on the morning of the 23rd July, 1856, without a 
single death having occurred on the voyage. 

The r^^ent was landed at noon, on the same day, at 
the Clarence Yard, Gosport, and proceeded by the South- 
Western Railway to the Famborough Station; thence 
marched to the North Camp at Aldershot, and occupied 

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Inspection by the Queen at Aldershot— Move to Dublin— Embar- 
kation for New South Wales— Sydney— Need of reinforce- 
ments in India— The Regiment ordered thither— Dum Dum— 
Fort William— Ordered up country— Halt at Sasseram— Head- 
quarters proceed to Benares — The Regiment moves to 
Hazareebagh— To Allahabad— To Bareilly— Durbar at Agra- 
March to Peshawur— Outbreak of cholera— Move to Now- 
shera— Agra— Ordered home— Quartered at Portsmouth— 
Portland— Aldershot— Chatham— Presented with new colours 
by the Duke 6f Cambridge at Wodwich— Designated the 
" Duke of Cambridge's Own "—Service in Ireland— For three 
years the best shooting regiment— Move to Dover— Embarka- 
tion for India— Madras and Bellary— Rangoon— Re-organiia- 
tion of the Infantry— The 77th becomes the 2nd Battalion of 
the Duke of Cambridge's Own (Middlesex Regiment)— Return 
to India— Secunderabad—Kamptee— March to Mhow— Move 
to Quetta — Expedition to Kelat — Headquarters move to 
Armednagar— To Bombay — Return home after seventeen 
years* foreign service— Quartered at Woolwich— The Duke of 
Cambridge appointed Colonel-in-Chief. 

Her Majesty the Queen inspected a large 
1856- portion of the Crimean army at Aldershot on the 
30th July, and on the following day visited the 
camp of the 77th« when the men were drawn up in line 
according to the number of da^s to their medals. Her 
Majesty^ who was received with three hearty cheers as she 
approached, walked down the ranks» speaking to several 
non-commissioned ofi&cers and men with great kindness 

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and condescension, and was graciously pleased to express 
in very flattering terms the high sense she entertained of 
the distinguished gallantry with which the r^;iment had 
behaved on every occasion, as well as of its fortitude and 
endurance under hardships and privations. 

While at Aldershot the reg^ent was reduced to twelve 
companies, the reserve companies from Malta arriving and 
being incorporated with the eight service companies. The 
dep6t companies from Parkhurst also arrived at Aldershot 
and encamped near the service companies, but were not in 
any way intermixed with them. 

The service companies left Aldershot on the ist Sep- 
tember and embarked at Liverpool for Dublin, where they 
took over quarters in the Richmond Barracks. 

In June, 1857, the regiment embarked at 

1857. Kingstown on board the freight ships " Orwell " 
and ** Palmerston '* — headquarters imder Lieutenant- 
Colonel Straton, C.B., on the former — ^for New South 
Wales. After a long and stormy voyage the two ships met 
off the Heads of Port Jackson on the 26th September, and 
on the 30th the 77th landed at Sydney and marched up to 
Victoria Barracks amid the cheers of thousands who had 
assembled to welcome the corps to New South Wales. 

The r^ment remained at Sydney till April, 

1858. 1858, and was then ordered to be in readiness for 
removal to Hong Kong. While, however, the 

transports were being surveyed, H.M.S. "M^pera" 
arrived from Calcutta with an urgent demand for the 
services of the 77th in India on account of the Sepoy 
mutiny. The destination was therefore changed, and the 
headquarters sailed for Calcutta in the " Megaera " on the 
20th April, the remainder of the r^;iment following in the 
" Raby Castle " some days later. 
The "Megaera" anchored off the Cooley Bazaar, 

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Calcutta, on the nth June, and the regiment being ordered 
to Dum Dum, was transhipped into river steamers for 
conveyance to Cossipore. 

It landed at Cossipore on the evening of the 13th June, 
and marched into barracks at Dum Dum on the 15th. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Straton, C.B., who had commanded 
the regiment for the last three years and more, died of 
cholera the following morning at 2 a.nL Major the Hon. 
A. G, C Chichester, the senior major, assumed the 

On the 20th June the grenadier company, under Captain 
Willington, with Lieutenants Knowles and Bengough, 
marched into barracks at Fort William, Calcutta ; and on 
the 25th the remainder of the regiment (with the exception 
of one company left at Dum Dum) followed to Calcutta, 
and occupied quarters in the Town Hall. The " Raby 
Castle " detachment had rejoined at Dum Dum on the 17th. 

On the 6th July the whole regiment moved into barracks 
at Fort William, where it remained till the 

1859. following January, when it received orders to 
move up country to Allahabad 

The left wing, under Colonel Deverell (the second-lieu- 
tenant-colonel), left Calcutta on the 13 th and proceeded by 
rail as far as Raneegunge, whence the journey was 
continued by bullock traia The headquarters followed on 
the 15th. While en route orders were received to halt at 
Sasseram (a place on the grand trunk road about 60 miles 
east of Benares), and the regiment accordingly marched 
into that station by detachments, the last arriving on the 
29th January. The whole corps remained here till the 
1 2th March, when the left wing, under Colonel Deverellt 
marched to Benares and occupied Raj Ghaut Fort there. 

On the 1st April a party of the right wing, under Major 
Kent, was ordered out in pursuit of a body of rebels, who 

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had suddenly appeared on the grand trunk road, and pro- 
ceeded into the Kymoor Hills. Owing, however, to want 
of water and transport difficulties, the detachment was 
unable to come up with the enemy, and returned to 
Sasseram on the 6th April The rebels, having suddenly 
come down from the hills in the neighbourhood of 
Jdianabad, Major Kent's party was ordered out again at 
2 a.m. next day, and marched to Jdianabad (i6 miles from 
Sasseram), arriving there at 7 a.m. The same day they 
resumed their march, and continued in dose pursuit of the 
rebels, until they had driven them on to the banks of the 
Ganges, where another column sent in pursuit cut them o£F. 
The 77th detachment rettuned to Sasseram on the 12th. 

The headquarters of the regiment, with the band and 

staff, proceeded on the 20th July to Benares, the right 

wing, under Major Kent, remaining at Sasseram 

1860. till it marched to relieve the 37th R^^ent at 
Ghazeepore on the ist March, i860. 

Owing to the crowded state of the Raj Ghaut barracks, 
part of the left wing was detached, under Major Mac- 
donald, first to Bandypore barracks and afterwards (in 
April, i860), to Dehree Ghaut, on the River Soane, eleven 
miles east of Sasseram. 

On the 8th December, the three different portions from 
Benares, Dehree Ghaut, and Ghazeepore, having assembled 
at Baroon the previous day, the whole regiment marched, 
under Colonel Chichester, from the latter place (situated on 
the east bank of the River Soane) to Hazareebagh, where 
it arrived on the 17th of the month. 

The r^;iment remained at this station till it 

1862. marched in November, 1862, to Allahabad, the 
station it had been originally ordered to in 1859. 

1863. It was inspected here by General Sir Hugh 
Rose, Commander-in-Chief in India, the fol- 
lowing January. 

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After two years at Allahabad the regiment 
1864. moved by rail to Cawnpore, and marched thence 
to Bareilly, arriving at that station on the 26th 
November, 1864. 

On the 20th October, 1866, the r^jiment left 

1866. Bareilly for Agra, detaching the strength of a 
company with the women and children and heavy 

baggage under Captain Weigall to Umballa. On arriving 
at Agra, on the 5th November, the 77th was brigaded with 
the 41st Regiment and the 8th Bengal N.L, and it remained 
there till the end of the month for duty during the Durbar 
held at Agra that year. Leaving Agra by rail the 
regiment made a brief halt at Delhi, and on the 

1867. 5th December commenced its march to Peshawur, 
where it arrived on the 5th Feb^ary, 1867, 

having been joined by Captain Weigall's party at 

On the 20th May cholera of a most malignant type broke 
out at Peshawur, and it continued to rage for several weeks 
with great severity, necessitating the removal of the 77th 
from camp to camp until the end of June, when it returned 
to quarters, having sustained a loss of one ofi&cer and 49 
mea The following autumn the troops in Peshawur again 
became generally unhealthy from the great prevalence of 
the local fever. Europeans and natives were attacked alike, 
and the total number of admissions into the r^[imental hos- 
pital was 681. 

The r^^ent left Peshawur on the 27th 

1868. January, 1868, and arrived the following day at 
Nowshera. The following April a detachment, 

composed of volunteers from different companies, imder 
Captain Leggett, was employed as a working party on the 
road between Abbotabad and Murree. 

On the 13th June, Colonel Chichester, who had com- 

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manded the regiment since 1858, retired on half-pay, and 
was succeeded in the conunand by Major Kent 

Captain L^fgetf s detachment, which on the outbreak of 

hostilities on the Hazara frontier had been recalled to 

garrison Abbotabad, rejoined headquarters in November, 

and the following month the regiment began its march to 

Agra, at which station it arrived on the i ith and 

1869. 1 2th February, 1869. On the regiment's depar- 
ture from his command Major-General O^Grady 

Haley, Commanding the Peshawur Division, wrote to 
express his regret at losing it, saying that " the efficiency 
in all respects and among all ranks, the good conduct, good 
interior economy, smartness, and the true and good feeling 
prevailing generally throughout the regiment must always 
make it an acquisition to any division of the Army in which 
it may be serving." 

On the 19th January, 1870, in consequence of 

1870. the reduction of the European forces in India, 
the 77th received sudden orders to return home^ 

whereupon the obsolete Enfield rifles were given into store, 
and 117 volunteers transferred to regiments remaining in 

The regiment, however, did not leave Agra till the i8th 
February, remaining there during the visit of H.RH. the 
Duke of Edinburgh, who arrived at the station on the 21st 
January, on which occasion the 77th furnished the guard 
of honour. Reduced to a total strength of 669, the 77th 
left Agra on the i8th February, travelling by rail as far as 
Jubbulpore, whence the journey to Nagpore was continued 
by bullock traia From Nagpore it proceeded by rail to 
Deolalee, where it arrived on the 13th March, and remained 
awaiting orders to embark 

The brigadier commanding at Agra issued a very 
flattering order on the regiment's departure, recording the 

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high opinion he entertained of "this excellent regiment,'^ 
and asserting that the arrangements in the various regi- 
mental institutions for the comfort and happiness of the 
men were " unsurpassed by any r^ment in the service " 

The r^;iment embarked at Bombay on board H.M.S. 
" Jumna ** on the 14th April, and arrived at Portsmouth on 
the 25th May, having been the first regiment to pass 
through the Suez Canal It disembarked the same day, and 
took over quarters in the Clarence Barracks, where — ^the 
dep6t under Captain Weigall, having arrived — ^the whole 
regiment was re-united as it had been in the same place on 
its return from Canada in 1848. 

On its arrival the regiment was armed with the new 
Snider breech-loading rifle in place of the Enfield rifle given 
in at Agra. Under the new system of affiliating the dep6ts 
of regiments on foreign service to corps serving at home, 
which had been introduced on the breaking up of the old 
dep6t battalions, the depdt of the 29th Regiment was 
attached to the 77th, and joined firom Colchester. 

After remaining a year and a half at Ports- 

1871. mouth the r^[iment proceeded on the 30th 
December, 1871, in H.M.S. "Simoon" to Port- 
land, and occupied the Verne Citadel, three companies 
under Major L^gett being detached to Weymouth. 

In August, 1 872, the regiment furnished a guard 

1872. of honour on the occasion of the laying the last 
stone of the Portland breakwater by H.RH. the 

Prince of Wales. It was a remarkable coincidence that 
this duty should have been performed by the 77th, as the 
r^^ent had furnished the guard in 1849, when the Prince 
Consent laid the first stone of the breakwater. The regi- 
ment was represented at the autumn manoeuvres this year 
by "A" Company, under Captain Bengough. The com- 
pany, made up to a strength of 100 rank and file, proceeded 

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to Blandford on the gth August, and returned to Wey- 
mouth at the end of the manoeuvres. 

In April, 1873, the new S3rstem of linking bat* 

1878. talions of the line was introduced, under which 
the 77th was linked with the 57th (West Middle- 
sex) Regiment,* and attached to the 50th Sub-district The 
same month the depdt 29th Regiment, which had been 
attached to the 77th for three years, left for Ireland to re- 
join their corps on its return from abroad. On the 31st 
May ''I" and "K" Companies left for Woolwich to join 
the 50th Brigade Dep6t, now first formed under the linked 
battalion s)^tenL 

The regiment continued at Portland and We3nnouth till 
the 20th June, 1873, when it proceeded to Aldershot and 
joined the 2nd Brigade on Rushmoor. 

The dep6t of the 52nd Light Infantry, was attached to 
the 77th during its stay in Aldershot, which lasted upwards 
of twelve months, the greater part of which was spent in 
the East Infantry Barracks, whither the regiment moved in 

After taking part in the great review before the 

1874. Emperor of Russia on the 19th May, 1874, suid 
the first part of the summer drills, the r^^iment 

left Aldershot on the 3rd July, and proceeded to Chatham, 
where it occupied St Mar/s Barracks, furnishing detadi- 
ments to Upnor and Sheemess. In October it was armed 
with the Martini-Henry rifle in place of the Snider. 

In June, 1875, the regiment returned to Alder- 

1875. shot, and was attached to the ist Division, ist 
Army Corps, for the stunmer drills, serving in 

the same brigade as its old friends the 5th Fusiliers. While 

*The two ngimesits had never served together, tod hadapperently never met. esoapt 
when one relieved the other at Gftlway in 182Q> 

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encamped on Cove Common very severe weather was ex- 
perienced, and the tents were frequently under water. On 
the termination of the summer drills at the end of July the 
regiment proceeded to Woolwich, and was quartered in 
the Cambridge Barracks. 

H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge inspected the troops at 
Woolwich the following October, and after the inspection ,>f 
was pleased to say that " the appearance and movements ' • 
of the 77th Regiment, under Colonel Kent, elicited his 
decided approbation^" 

On the 4th May, 1876, the r^^iment received 

1876. new colours. The old colours having been trooped 
and the new colours consecrated by the Chaplain- 
General, H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge addressed the 
regiment as follows : — *' Colonel Kent, officers, non-commis- 
sioned officers, and men of the 77th R^[iment, — It affords 
me great pleasure and satisfaction to present you with these 
new colours, to be borne at the head of your r^[iment on 
all occasions, and wherever you may be called upon to serve 
your country in all parts of the world. I have the more plea- 
sure in doing this because I am aware from my own per- 
sonal experience how gallantly the regiment has on com- 
paratively recent occasions stood by its old colours on the 
field, and in a manner worthy of the British soldier and 
highly honourable to this distinguished corps. Nor is the 
pleasure less because my duty to-day is performed in the 
presence of two such distinguished generals as Sir Richard 
Airey and General L}rsons, both of whom, as well as myself, 
served with you in the Crimea, and had the gratification of 
seeing your bravery in the field. There ar^ I suppose, un- 
fortunately not many of the same men now among you as 
then, but I am confident that should any emergency arise, 
those to whom I entrust these new colours will be equal to 

those who have so nobly gone before theuL And yAule 

I 2 

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speaking of recent events in the history of this corps, I do 
not forget its services in times long past, and how it won 
laurels for itself and honour for the whole Army in India. 
Remember that these emblems are to lead you to honour 
and victory, and if you do your duty as you have done in 
the past, and as you assuredly will while you are so abty 
commanded as you now are, I fed sure these colours will 
suffer no dishonour. 

•* I cannot close my remarks without a reference to your 
brave commander in the Crimea, Colonel Egerton, who fell 
with his equally brave adjutant in that campaign, and I 
know how mudi he was beloved by the corps ^d looked up 
to by all I feel certain that if occasion should arise again, 
the 77th Regiment will display the same sense of duty, 
honotur, and bravery. I place these colours in your hands, 
confident that they will be supported and defended as they 
should be by British soldiers, and particularly by such a 
regiment as the ^/th.** 

The new colours having been received by Lieutenants 
Royds and Thornton, Colonel Kent replied as follows : — 
" May it please your Royal Highness, — In the name and 
on behalf of the 77th Regiment, which I have the honour 
to command, I beg to return you my most grateful and 
heartfelt thanks for the great honour you have conferred 
on us by presenting our new colours to us this day. No 
r^[iment has received its colours from a more illustrious 
prince or a more gallant and distinguished soldier. 

" The colours, the gift of the great, the good, the beloved 
Queen, whom we serve, will be dearly prized, and faithfully 
guarded by every man in the 77th, andj^u, Sir, may depend 
upon our doing all in our power to deserve the trust The 
old colours were carried throughout the Crimean War, 
durix^ which fifteen officers and nearly eight hundred men 
of the 77tb Regiment died for the honour of their Queen 

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Monument in St. Paul's Cathedral 
Erected in memory of 
Officers and Men of the -i- i- 

Seventy-seventh Regiment i- 

1854— 1856. i- |. j. i- : ■•■ ■{' 

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and country. Another generation now fills their places, but 
I trust that I shall not be thought to exceed the bounds of 
pride I take in the noble regiment I have the honour to 
command when I say that if occasion arose we would 
emulate the glories of the past, and uphold the honour 
of the regiment as our fathers did at El Bodon and 

"I b^ to assure your Royal Highness that the remem- 
brances of this condescending act will be long cherished by 
us, and will be associated with the best, the truest friend 
that the soldier ever had." 

After the ceremony the Duke of Cambridge and about a 
thousand other guests were entertained by Colonel Kent 
and the officers at a dejeuner at the Cambridge Barracks. 

On the 8th May the old colours were deposited in St 
Paul's Cathedral, whither they were escorted by the whole 
of the officers and a htmdred men with the band and drums 
of the regiment The party was met at Cannon Street 
Station by a guard of honour of the Royal London Militia, 
and marched to the Mansion House, where it was received 
by the Lord Mayor and the Lady Mayoress (Alderman and 
Mrs. Cotton). After speeches by the Lord Mayor and 
Colonel Kent the colours were escorted to the Cathedral, 
the 77th marching through Queen Victoria Street and 
Cannon Street with bayonets fixed and band playing, pre- 
ceded by the Royal London MiUtia and accompanied by 
the Lord Mayor on foot 

At the great west entrance of St Paul's the party was 
received by the Dean and Chapter, and a procession being 
formed the colours were borne into the Cathedral and laid 
upon the Communion Table. A short service was then held 
and addresses made by the Dean and Chaplain-General, 
aft«r which the colours were carried to the north side of the 
Cathedral and placed over the memorial erected there to 

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the memory of the officers and men of the 77th who died 
in the Crimean war. 

Colonel Kent and the officers of the regiment were after- 
wards entertained by Sir William Rose and the officers of 
the Royal London Militia. 

On die 1 8th May Colonel Kent and the officers enter- 
tained the Lord Mayor and the Dean of St Patil's at a l>an- 
quet at the Cambridge Barracks, Woolwich. 

The regiment left Woolwich for Ireland six days later, 
embarking in H.M.S. " Simoon,'' at the Royal Arsenal. It 
landed at Queenstown on the 27th May, and took up its 
quarters in Cork Barracks, sending detachments to Carlisle 
Fort, Mitchelstown, and Waterford. 

On the 20th June it was notified in the '^ London Gazette" 
that Her Majesty had approved of the 77th being in future 
designated "The Duke of Cambridge's Own Regiment," 
and on the 14th December permission was given for the 
Duke's coronet and cypher to be borne on the r^;imental 

The regiment embarked at Queenstown on the 

1877. 24th March, 1877, in H.M.S. "Assistance," and 
landed at Belfast on the 27th, when it took over 

quarters at Newry, sending out detachments to Monaghan, 
Trim, and Drogheda. 

In the spring of 1878 the imminence of war 

1878. with Russia caused the mobilization of the 
Reserves, and the establishment of the 77th was 

raised to 40 sergeants and 880 privates by transfers from 
the Royal East Middlesex Militia. 

The Reserves were demobilized and struck off the 
strength on the 24th July. 

The regiment was the best shooting r^fiment, and " H " 
Company (Captain King's) the best shooting company in 

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On the 31st July the regiment proceeded to the 
Curragfa and remained there till the termination of the 
summer drills, when it moved to Dublia The raiment 
had been veiy popular at Newry» and on hearing that it 
was not returning the Town Commissioners wrote to 
Colonel Kent expressing their regret at the corps' removal, 
their appreciation of the many services rendered by the 
officers, and their high approval of the excellent conduct 
of the non-commissioned officers and mea A memorial 
was also addressed to the Lord Lieutenant, requesting that 
the regiment might be sent back to Newry, but for military 
reasons could not be complied with. 

The 77th was again the best shooting regi- 

1879. ment in 1878-9, and ''H" Company the best 
shooting company, while the 50th Brigade Depdt 

was the best shooting depdt 

Owing to the large drafts sent out to the linked 
battalion, then on active service in South Africa, the regi- 
ment was reduced to a mere skeleton in 1879, ^0^ being 
able to find more than thirty duty mea However, on the 
arrival in Dublin from South Africa of the 57th, a number 
of men were re-transferred, and the 77th was brought up to 
1st Army Corps strength and placed under orders for 

The regiment embarked at Kingstown on the 

1880. I2th February^ 1880, in H.M.S. "Assistance"; 
landed at Sheemess, and proceeded to Dover, 

where it occupied the Shaft Barracks. 

On the 1st May it was notified in General Orders that 
the 77th, for the third time in succession, was the best 
shooting regiment, and " H " Company (Captain Fenton's) 
the best shooting company. Private H. Morgan, "B" 
Company, was declared the best shot in the Army, and 
Lance-Sergeant A. McFarlane, of the depdt, the best 

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judge of distance. The 50th Brigade Depdt was again 
the best shooting depdt 

Colonel Kent was placed on half-pay on the 21st June, 
and announced his retirement in the following R^riinental 
Order? — 

"Seventy-seventh — for thirty-five years I have served 
with you ; for twelve years I have commanded you. It is 
with no ordinary feeling of r^;ret that, on being placed 
on half-pay, I take leave of the r^[iment so dear to me, and 
that I love so welL Most of my happiest recollections 
are, and will be, associated with it Many of you were 
not bom when I first joined the r^[iment under that 
distinguished officer Colonel Graham Egerton. But from 
my first day with it to the last I have ever felt an 
increasing attachment to it, and when by the favour of 
Her Majesty, and with the approbation of His Royal 
Highness the Field-Marshal Commanding-in-Chief, I was 
called to the command of it, it was my earnest desire to 
realize the importance of the trust committed to me — and 
looking back on the past I can truly say that I have spared 
no pains, no effort to make it as efficient as possible in 
every respect 

** Nor in sa}dng this do I assume to myself any credit, 
as I only tried to do my duty ; while for the efficient state 
of the regiment I am mainly indebted to the zealous 
support which I have received from the officers and non- 
commissioned officers. 

" It will always be a source of pride and pleasure to me 
that while maintaining the strictest discipline you have 
looked upon me more as a friend than a commander over 
you, and with the sincerest Wishes for your future success 
and welfare, I bid you all affectionately farewell'* 

Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel H. M. L. Colquhoun suc- 
ceeded Colonel Kent in command of the r^[iment 

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On the 29th July the r^;iment was ordered, by tdegczm 
from the Horse Guards, to be held in readiness for 
immediate embarkation for India, and cm the 14th August 
it left Dover and embarked ^t Portsmouth in H.M»S. 
^ Himalaya,'' which sailed the following day. 

The strength on embarkation was: — 

Lieutenant-Colonel H. M. L. Colquhoun. 
Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel H. M. Bengough. 
Major R. Hoskins. 
Captain W. F. Gatacre. 
Captain A. L. Tickell. 
Captain C Forte. 
Captain H. F. Marryat 
Captain S. B. Royds. 
Captain R. C. Thornton. 
Captain F. H. M. Dawson. 
Captain F. Graham. 
Lieutenant E. E. Foley. 
Lieutenant F. D. Lumley. 
Lieutenant R. T. H. Law. 
Lieutenant G. C. G. Norton. 
Lieutenant N. W. Bamardiston. 
Lieutenant G. B. Lempriere. 
Lieutenant G. W. W. Savile. 
Lieutenant M. Singletoa 
Lieutenant L. G. Oliver. 
Lieutenant and Adjutant A G. Schuyler. 
Captain A H. Haldane (Pa)anaster). 
40 Sergeants, 17 Drummers, and 743 Rank and File. 

The r^fiment landed at Bombay on the loth and nth 
September, and proceeded to Poona, whence the head- 
quarters and left wing started, in the evening of the 13th, 
for Fort St George, Madras. The right wing; under 

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Lieutenant-Colond Bengougb, left the foUowing day for 

After being only three months at Madras and Bellary, the 
r^riment embarked, on the i6th December, for Burmah, 
and on the 23rd landed at Rangoon, where it occupied the 
barracks on the Signal Pagoda Plateau. Two companies 
were detached to Port Blair, in the Andaman Islands. 

On the 1st July, 1881, the Infantry of the Line 

1881. was reoiganized and formed into territorial 
regiments. The 77th, under this reorganization, 
became the 2nd Battalion of the Duke of Cambric^'s 
Own (Middlesex Regiment), of which the other battalions 
were the 57th (West Middlesex) Regiment, the Royal East 
Middlesex Militia, and the Royal Elthome Lig^t Infantry 
Militia. The facings were chax^;ed from yellow to white, 
and a "rose pattern*' lace introduced in place of that 
hitherto worn. 

The battalion remained at Rangoon till 

1883. December, 1883, when it embarked for India, 
landing at Madras on the ist January, 1884, and 

1884. proceeding thence to the Camp of Exercise at 
Bangalore. On the breaking up of the camp it 

proceeded by rail to Secunderabad, and occupied barracks 
at Trimulgherry, on the ist February. 

Colonel Colquhoun's five years' tenure of command 
having expired on the 20th June, 1884, he was placed on 
half -pay and succeeded by Lieutenant-Colonel Gatacre. 

On the 5th April, 1885, the battalion was 

1888. suddenly warned for active service, hostilities 

with Russia being imminent It was later 

notified that the Quetta district would be its destination. 

War was, however, averted, arid after being for three weeks 

in a state of readiness to start for the front at the shortest 

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notice> the battalion was informed on the 25tfa May that 
its services would not be required 

Lieutenant-Colond Gatacre resigned the command of 
the battalion in December, 1885, on appointment as 
D.Q.M. General, Bengal, and was succeeded in the com- 
mand by Lieutenant-Colonel C. J. Matthews. 

In September, 1886, a detachment of two 

1886. companies, under Captain Sharpe, left Secun- 
derabad for Kamptee, Central Provinces, to take 

over the barracks vacated by the 2nd Battalion Royal 
Munster Fusiliers, ordered to Burmah. 

The headquarters and remainder of the 

1887. battalion left Secunderabad on the 28th and 
29th March for Kamptee, arriving there five days 

later. The battalion here came under the conmiand of 
one of its old officers, Brigadier-General H. M. Bengough, 
who at this time commanded the Nagpore district The 
only detachment furnished from Kamptee was a half- 
company at Seetabuldee Fort, Nagpore, about ten miles 
away, which was relieved monthly. 

On the 1st October, 1888, the Nagpore 

1888. district was handed over from the Madras to the 
Bombay Presidency, and the 2nd Battalion Mid- 
dlesex Regiment transferred to the Bombay Establish- 
ment The following month H.R.H. the Duke of 
Connaught, Commander-in-Chief of the Bombay Army, 
visited Kamptee on a tour of inspection. 

The battalion remained at Kamptee till 
1890. January, i8go, when it moved to Mhow and 
Indore, "H" Company^ under Captain Dyer, 
proceeding to the latter station by raiL The headquarters 
and remainder of the battalion, under Lieutenant-Colonel 
H. D. Wade-Dalton (who had succeeded Lieutenant- 
Colonel Matthews in the command the previous Sep- 

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tember) inarched from Kan^ee for Mhow on the 24th 
January. The distance traversed was 335 miles, and the 
route taken that vii Budnor, Itarsi, and Hurda, which 
had not seen a British r^[iment since the days of the 
Mutiny. The battalion exchanged stations with the ist 
Battalion Loyal North Lancashire Regiment, and the two 
corps met and encamped together for three days at Budnor, 
during which time the transport was exchanged, the North 
Lancashires taking over the Kamptee transport carts and 
animals. The battalion reached Mhow on the 6th March 
and took up its quarters in the British infantry barracks 

After being nearly two years at Mhow the 

1882. battalion left that station on the 12th and 13th 
February for Bombay, where it embarked for 
Karachi, en route for Quetta, at which place it arrived at 
the end of the month. 

As there were many men who had spent from six to ten 
years in the warm climate of Southern and Central India* 
the sudden change to the frost and snow of Quetta was 
severely felt, and at first there was a very large number of 
admissions to hospital 

In April, 1893, news having reached Quetta 

1888. of the miuxier of ministers at Kdat, at the insti- 
gation of the Khan, a small force of all arms, 
including the 2nd Battalion Middlesex R^fiment, was 
despatched to Kelat, under G^lonel Wade-Dalton. The 
force left Quetta on the nth, and arrived and encamped at 
Kelat, after some arduous marches over steep mountain 
passes, on the 21st 

On the 6th May orders were received to remove the 
Khan's treasure, estimated at 44 lacs of rupees, packed in 
boxes containing eight thousand rupees each, from the 
Kdat Fort to the camp. Working parties from the 

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battalion and the 5th Mountain Battery were employed on 
this duty for a week, and shortly after the removal of 
treasure the force returned to Quetta, leaving three 
companies of the Middlesex Regiment, some guns, and 
cavalry behind at Kelat 

The return march was a very trying one, as the men had 
daily before starting nearly an hour's work loading the 275 
camels which carried the treasure. The pace of the camels 
was slow over the bad ground, and only one halt could be 
allowed during the day's march. On arrival in camp there 
was another hour^s work unloading and stacking the 
treasure chests, and the guard duties were severe. The 
men, however, were in excellent health and condition, and 
excepting a few cases of fever and sunstroke, no man fell 
out during the march. 

Colonel Wade-Dalton was placed on retired pay in 
September, 1893, and was succeeded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
A. A. Garstin, from the 1st Battalion, who joined and 
assumed command in February, 1894. 

The battalion left Quetta the following March, when 
the headquarters moved to Ahmednagar, two companies to 
Satara, and one to Kirkee. In these quarters the battaUon 
remained upwards of three years. 

In January, 1897, a draft from the 1st Bat- 

1897. talion, in South Africa, on its way to join the 
2nd Battalion, in India, was wrecked in the 
transport "Warren Hastings," on the island of R6unioa 
The conduct of the troops on board on this occasion was 
the subject of a general order by the Field-Marshal Com- 
manding-in-Chief, who expressed his great gratification in 
making known to the Army ** the remarkable courage and 
exemplary discipline displayed by the troops under most 
trying circumstances." 

The Royal Dublin Fusiliers being suddenly ordered to 

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South Africa in May, in anticipation of possible trouble in 
the Transvaal, the battalion was ordered to relieve them at 
Bombay at three days' notice. The headquarters and " H " 
Company arrived on the 17th May at Bombay, whither the 
three comjuinies from Kirkee and Satara had already pro- 
ceeded ; the remaining companies relieved the detachments 
of the Dublin Fusiliers at Ahmedabad, Deolalee, and 

At Bombay the battalion had the good fortune to come 
under one of its old commanding officers — ^Brigadier- 
General W. F. Gatacre — ^who accorded a hearty welcome 
to his old corps. Being placed under orders to return home 
during the 1897-98 trooping season, the battalion was 
ordered to furnish a draft of 460 men for the 1st 

1888. Battalion on its arrival in India. This party left 
Bombay on the i8th January, 1898, and two days 
later the headquarters and what were left of the battalion — 
20 officers, 2 warrant officers, and 320 men-— embarked in 
the transport " Dilwara " for England, over seventeen years 
having elapsed since, as the 77th Regiment, the corps had 
arrived in India. 

Landing at Southampton on the 13th February, the 
battalion proceeded to Woolwich the same day and 
occupied the Cambridge Barracks. In August the Mid- 
dlesex Regiment was honoured by the appointment of 
H.RH. the Duke of Cambridge as its Colonel-in-Chief. 
His Ro3ral Highness, in reply to a letter from Sir George 
Willis, the Colonel of the regiment, expressing the r^- 
ment's gratitude for the honour conferred on it, was pleased 
to say that he was much gratified at being appointed 
Colonel-in-Chief of the old 57th and 77th, and desired that 
both battalions should be informed how pleased he was by 
the honour conferred on him. 

The battalion took part in the manoeuvres, held on a 

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large scale in Wiltshire, this year, and retnmed to Woolwich 
on their termination on the 9th September. 

The same month Colonel Garstin^ who had commanded 
the battalion for the last five years, gave up the command 
on being placed on half -pay. Before leaving be presented 
a gold medal, to be inscribed annually with the name of the 
best shot in the battalion. He was succeeded by Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel A. W. Hill, from the ist Battalion, who 
joined and assumed command on the ist November, 1898. 

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South Africa. 
1899— 1903. 

The Battalion mobilised for active service— Embarks for South 
Africa— Lands at Durban — Joins 5th Division at Estconrt — At 
Spearman's Hill— Action of Spion Kop — Retreat to Chieveley 
—Further operations for the relief of Ladysmith— On Hussar 
Hill— Crossing the Tugela— Attack on Grobelaar's Kloof— 
Ladysmith relieved— The Battalion embarks at Durban for 
Cape Town— Re-lands and returns to Pietermaritzburg — To 
Ladysmith— March to Elandslaagte— Advance through the 
Biggarsberg— Occupation of Glencoe— Newcastle reached — 
Advance through the Drakensberg— Van Wyk and Alleman's 
Nek— Natal cleared of the enemy— The loth Brigade at 
Volksrust— Flying columns sent towards Amersfoort — The 
Battalion stationed in and around Newcastle— A detachment 
sent to Dundee— Attack on Utrecht— The Battalion sent to 
occupy that town, which it holds till the end of the war — 
Operations in the Eastern Transvaal— Peace proclaimed— The 
Battalion demobilised— Return to England. 

On the 13th November, 1899, ^^ battalion 
1889. received orders to mobilise for service in South 
Africa, and was detailed to form part of the loth 
Brigade, 5th Division, the divisional commander being 
Lieutenant-General Sir Charles Warren, K.C.M.G., and the 
brigadier. Colonel (temporary Major-General) J. Talbot- 

*The chapter in the oflteial records of the Battalioa relating to the Sonth Afrieaa 
War it here given without alteration or omission. 

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The Reserves were ordered to mobilise at Hounslow, 554 
being called out, of whom 507 joined the battalion; the 
remainder, with the exception of one man who failed to 
report himself, being rejected as medically unfit, or other- 
wise accounted for. 

The battalion was inspected by Major-General J. F. 
Maurice, C.B.> on 29th November, 1899, ^^^ ^^ ordered to 
embark at Southampton in the ss. "Avondale Castle'' on 
1st December, but the transport was delayed in the Thames 
^y fo& ^^d tibe embarkation was consequently postponed 
until the following day, when the battalion left Woolwich 
by rail and embarked at the port mentioned 

The names of the officers and the strength of the bat- 
talion embarked were as follows : — 

Lieutenant-Colonel A. W. Hill (commanding). 

Major N. J. R. Blake (second-in-command). 

Major W. Scott-MoncrieflF. 

Major G. B. Lempriere. 

Captain G. W. W. Savile. 

Captain C. R. Dyer. 

Captain R. de H. Burton. 

Captain H. M. Eustace. 

Captain C. L. Muriel 

Captain C. E. Pemberton. 

Lieutenant R. A. Haviland. 

Lieutenant H. E. Foster. 

Lieutenant F. A. Galbraith. 

Lieutenant H. Storr. 

Lieutenant C. S. D. Fisher. 

Second Lieutenant W. G. H. Lawley. 

Second Lieutenant H. P. Osborne. 

Second Lieutenant G. W. Bentley. 

Second Lieutenant H. P. F. BicknelL 

Second Lieutenant H. A. C. Wilson. 

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Second Lieutenant W. A. Stewart 
Second Lieutenant J. St J. Seeker. 
Lieutenant and Adjutant H. F. MacEwan. 
Lieutenant and Quartermaster T. Piper. 

I warrant officer and 1,017 non-commissioned officers and 
men. Total, 1,032 all ranks; and also Lieutenant F. 
Harvey, Royzl Army Medical Corps, Medical Officer, 

The transport sailed from Southampton on the after- 
noon of 2nd December, 1899^ and arrived at Cape Town <mi 
the morning of 26th December, no casualties havii^^ 
occurred during the voyage. The battalion at once tran- 
shipped to the hired transport ss. "Mongolian," and left 
at 6 p.m. the same day for Durban, where it arrived late on 
the evening of 31st December, 1899. 

The disembarkation was carried out early on 

1900a 1st January, 1900, and the battalion proceeded 
in the afternoon by four troop trains to Estcourt, 
where it joined the loth Brigade, the remainder of the 561 
Division being already concentrated there. 

The Division left Estcourt on the 9th January, and 
marched to Frere, where it halted for one night, and then 
proceeded to Springfield Bridge, where the loth Brigade 
was detached until 15th Januaiy, when it moved on to 
Spearman's Hill and rejoined the remainder of the Field 
Force, which had been augmented by the arrival of the 2nd 
Division from Chieveley, the whole being tmder the com- 
mand of General the Right Honourable Sir Redvers H. 
Buller, V.C, G.C.B., K.C.M.G., who issued the foUowing 
order: — 

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-Field Order. 

*" Springfield, 

"^ 1 2th January, 1900. 

" The Field Force is now advancing to the relief of Lady- 
smith where, sutrounded by superior forces, our comrades 
have gallantly defended themselves for the last ten weeks. 

** The General Commanding knows that everyone in the 
Force feels, as he does, we must be successful 

^ We shall be stoutly opposed by a dever, unscrupulous 
enemy. Let no man allow himself to be deceived by them. 
If a white flag is displayed, it means nothing unless the 
force displa}nng it halt, throw down their arms, and throw 
up their hands at the same time. 

'' If they get a chance the enemy will try and mislead us 
by false words of command and false bugle sounds ; every- 
one must guard against being deceived by such conduct 

" Above all, if any are ever surprised by a sudden volley 
at close quarters, let there be no hesitation, do not turn from 
it, but rush at it That is the road to victory and safety. A 
retreat is fatal ; the one thing the enemy cannot stand is 
our being at dose quarters widi them. 

''We are fighting for the health and safety of our com- 
rades ; we are fighting in defence of our flag against an 
enemy who has forced war upon us for the worst and lowest 
motives by treachery, conspiracy, and deceit Let us bear 
ourselves as our cause deserves. 

"By Order, 

" (Signed) A WYNNE, Colonel, 
"Chief of Star ' 

On the 22nd January the force crossed the Tugela River 

and bivouacked at One Tree Hill ; and on the 23rd January 

K 2 

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the battalion, forming part of the loth Brigade, 5th Division^ 
was bivouacking near the base of Spion Kop. 

The battalion was under the temporary command of 
Major N. J. R. Blake, Lieutenant-Colonel A. W. Hill being 
in temporary command of the loth Brigader— the Brigadier, 
Major-General J. Talbot Coke, having replaced Sir Charles 
Warren in command of the Division. The latter ofl5cer had 
been placed in command of the whole force detailed for 
the movements in this part of the zone of operations. 

At about I a.m. on the morning of the 24th January, 1900, 
the battalion received ordeit to advance in support of the 
nth Brigade, which had moved oS during the night in order 
to assault Spion Kop early in the morning. The night was 
fine but dark. Absolute silence was maintained. The bat- 
talion moved ofiF, and after marching for some time over 
very rough ground took up a position on the hills west of 
Spion Kop, which at dawn was enveloped in a thick mist 
Here they remained tmtil about 8 a.m., when, after having 
some breakfast, and leaving their great-coats on the groimd, 
the battalion again moved ofiF, as part of the right flank 
attack, in fours, with five 3^rds distance between each sec- 
tion of fours, and commenced the ascent of Spion Kop. 
The hill had been seized early in the morning by the i ith 

" G " Company marched oflF first, followed by " D," " C," 
" A," " B," " E " and " F " in the order named. " H " Com- 
pany had been ordered to take up picks and shovels in order 
to make a road. 

The ascent was very steep, and in most places it was 
necessary to climb in single file. " G " Company had trailed 
out a good deal in consequence, and on reaching the top 
of the hill Captain Eustace received orders to occupy with 
what men he had, amounting to a dozen or so, the crest line 
of the hill behind some stones. This he did. The rest of 

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the company, under Lieutenant Lawley (who was after- 
wards kUled), were ordered to the right of the position. 

On arriving near the summit the other companies of the 
battalion received various, and in many cases contradictory, 
orders as to the position to be occupied by them. The 
advance was mudi hampered, too, by continuous streams of 
men of various regiments, wounded, etc, coming down the 

A trench to the right rear of the rocks occupied by Cap- 
tain Eustace and a part of " G " Company, was occupied by 
" C " Company, imder Captain Dyer, imder circumstances 
of great coohiess and gallantry. This trendi had been 
evacuated in a panic by a large number of men belonging 
to another brig^ade, who were holding it before the arrival 
of the company. While the latter was advandcg and pre- 
paring to rush over the top of the hill they were met by a 
crowd of the fugitives, who came nmning down the hill, 
shouting, " Retire !" The Boers are on us." Captain Dyer 
endeavoured to stop them, but they were panic-stricken, so 
calling out ** Come on, * C* Company!" while Second Lieu- 
tenant Bicknell also shouted, " Come on, Diehards!" he led 
his company through them and occupied the trench which 
they had left 

The troops on the summit of the hill were much mixed 
up; companies were separated from their battalions, sec- 
tions and individuals from their companies at different parts 
of the hill, but as far as can be ascertained the companies of 
the battalion appear to have been more or less in the follow- 
ing order, occupying the crest line of the hill : — 

On the extreme right of the position part of " H " Com- 
pany; next "B," then part of "A"; "C" and "G" more 
to the left; then 'D"; and "F" and *E" further to the 

The men were terribly crowded, in many places lying on 

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the top of one another, and were exposed during the whole 
day to a very heavy and well-directed fire from rifles, 
madiine guns and artillery, from nearly all sides. 

A more trying situaticm can hardly be conceived 

Had there been fewer men cm the top of the hill the losses 
would have been considerably less. The sufferings endured 
from thirst were also very great The only water procur- 
able was what the men had in their water-bottles, and that 
they mostly gave away to the wounded. 

In spite of all this, the behaviour of otir men was splen- 
did. There were numerous cases of gallantry and devotion 
on the part of both officers and men, and more than one 
effort was made, though without success, to reach the Boers 
with the bayonet 

Notwithstanding the galling and destructive fire to which 
the men were exposed from 1 1 a.m. till sunset, preparations 
were being made for a charge against the enem/s trenches 
under cover of the darkness^ but before this could be car- 
ried out repeated orders were received to retire and evacuate 
the hilL This was eventually done in spite of remonstrances 
and with the greatest reluctance by all ranks. 

The companies retired down the hill during the night» 
and returned on the following day to their old bivouac 

The battalion lost heavily^ the castialties being as follows s 


Captain C L. Muriel 

Second Lieutenant W. G. H. Lawley. 

Second Lieutenant H. A. C. Wilson. 

2 Sergeants. 

19 Rank and File. 
Wounded: — '- 

Major W. Scott-Mcmcrieff. 

Captain G. W. W. Savile. 

Captain R. de H. Burton. 

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Second Lieutenant G. W. Bentley. 

4 Sergeants. 

45 Rank and Ffle ^duding one prisons). 

Lieutenant F. A. Galbraith. 
2 Sergeants. 
15 Rank and File. 
tPrisoners: — 

7 Privates (i wounded). 

The whole of the officers of the battalion, with the excep- 
tion of Lieutenant and Quartermaster T. Piper, who was 
left at Spearman's in charge of the baggage, took part in 
the action of Spion Kop. 

For cases of gallantry, etc, brought to notice by General 
Officer Commanding 5th Division, see Appendix at the end 
of this chapter. 

After the retirement from Spion Kop the battalion 
returned on 25th Januaiy, 1900, to its bivouac on the hiUs 
north of the Tugela, and after assisting in covering the 
general retirement which then took place, marched to Hat- 
tingh's Farm, which it reached on 27th January. 

On 31st January Lieutenant L. S. Roome, 2 sergeants, 
5 corporals, and 53 privates joined from England, bringing 
up the strength to 23 officers, i warrant officer, and 1,052 
other ranks. 

On 1st February the battaUon moved to Spearman's. 

The following message, which had been received by the 
General Officer Commanding from Her Most Gracious 
Majesty the Queen, was communicated to the troops on 
3rd February: — 

rnMM wen aU stnick off the tltHicUi. as IdOad. Inr a Ccmit of Inqniry beU a^ 
Ntweaatle 00 Stb Deoember. 1900^ 

t Reeapcncod at Pratocia, 6lh June. 1900^ 

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" I must express my admiration of the conduct of the 
troops during the past trying week, especially of those r^- 
ments you specify, and of the accomplishment of your 
arduous march.'' 

Sir Redvers Buller^s telegram with reference to Spion 
Kop had contained the following passage : — 

*' Our men fought with great gallantry, and I would espe- 
cially mention the conduct of the 2nd Cameronians and the 
3rd King's Royal Rifle Corps, who supported the attack on 
the mountain from the steepest side, and in each case fought 
their way to the top, and the 2nd Lancashire Fusiliers and 
2nd Middlesex, who magnificently maintained the best 
traditions of the British Army throughout the trying day of 
the 24th, and Thomeycroft's Mounted Infantry, who fought 
throughout the day equally well alongside of them" 

Receiving sudden orders to move to Naval Gun Plateau 
(under Mount Alice), the battalion struck camp and marched 
at 3.30 p.m. on Sunday, 4th February, but returned in the 
evening to Spearman's, where it remained during the actions 
at or near Vaal Krantz on the 5th, 6th, and /th. On the 
8th it was moved to Naval Gun Plateau to assist in covering 
the general retirement of the Army on Frere and'Chieveley. 

Forming the rear-guard of the loth Brigade, the battalion 
marched on the lOth February to Springfield Bridge and 
bivouacked, and on the following day continued the retire- 
ment, experiencing two very hot and trying mardies to Pre- 
torius Farm and Chieveley, which latter place was reached 
at noon on 12th February. 

Two days later commenced the operations to the east and 
north-east of Colenso, which were destined to open the road 
to Ladysmith. During the first portion of these the bat- 
talion took no active part, remaining from the 14th to 20th 
February on Hussar Hill, though frequently under shell 
and pom-pom fire, which, however, did no damage. On the 

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20th the battalion moved across to Hlangwani, and 
bivouacked at the foot of the hill that night, ascending it 
the following morning (21st). A pontoon bridge had been 
thrown across the Tugela about a mile below the railway 
bridge, where the river nms nearly due north for a short 
distance before turning to the east again. It was here the 
Tugela was to be crossed, and the loth Brigade were to 
have the honour of leading the advance, whidi was to 
commence about i p.m. on 21st February. 

The bridge was crossed about two o'clock under shell 
fire, which, however, inflicted no loss. After crossing 
the bridge the brigade formed up to attack the 
slopes of Grobelaar*s Kloof. The right half battalion 
extended and acted in support of the Somersetshire 
Light Infantry, and quickly came under very heavy 
shell and rifle fire. The Somersetshire Light Infantry 
suffered very severely, but our casualties were only 7 men 
wounded — 4 dangerously so, of whom 2 died on the 
following day. The left half battalion in the meantime 
took up a position in support of the first line, along the 
Kopjes just above the plain which ran north and south, the 
Dorset Regiment protecting the left flank nearer Colenso. 
The engagement was kept up till after dark, and the loth 
Brigade then occupied the kopjes along the river covering 
the bridge. 

From the 22nd February until after the successful attack 
on Pieter's Hill on the 27th, the battalion was continuously 
on outpost duty in this position, and under incessant shell 
and rifle fire, with, however, surprisingly few casualties. 

On the 22nd February the battalion received the 
chocolate boxes, the gift of Her Most Gracious Majesty 
the Queen, and on the 28th was received the joyful news 
of the unconditional surrender of General Cronje to Lord 
Roberts at Paardeberg on the preceding day (the anniver- 

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saiy of the battle of Majuba): and also of the entry of Lord 
Dundonald into Ladjrsmith. 

The battalion remained on the hills north of Colenso 
until /th March, receiving orders on the 5th to hold them- 
selves in readiness to proceed to Cape Town. On 7th 
March, the battalion, with the rest of the loth Brigade,* 
proceeded by train to Pietermaritzburg, arriving on the 
following morning (to re&t for embarkation), and leaving 
again by train on night of loth March, arrived at Durban 
at 6 a.m. on nth and embarked on the ss. "Hawarden 

The orders for the move to Cape Town were, however, 
cotmtermanded, and on the 15th March the battalion disem- 
barked again and returned by train to Pietermaritzburg, 
arriving early on the following morning. Here they 
remained until 21st March. 

Whilst at Pietermaritzburg orders were received for the 
despatch of i colour-sergeant, 3 sergeants, and 5 corporals 
to England to join the newly-formed 3rd Battalion, and 
Lieutenant G. W. Haslehust (^^ had joined the battalion 
on 2ist February), 2 sergeants, I corporal, and 19 privates 
joined the loth Brigade Dep6t at Pietermaritzburg for 

On the 2ist March the battalion proceeded by train to 
Ladysmith, which was reached on the following day. 

On the 1st April, 1900, the strength of the battalion was 
25 officers, I warrant officer, and 1,027 other ranks 

On the 4th April the loth Brigade marched to Modder 
Spruit in the following order : — 

*The lOkh Brigade eontiited of the Snd Docttt Regiment and aod Middleees 
Regiment, Supply Cohunn, Bearer Company, and Field Hoapital, the Someraet light 
Infantry having been withdrawn and tent elsewhere. 

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Advanced Guard: — 

Half Battalion, 2nd Middlesex Regiment, and 
Divisional Cavalry, under Lieutenant-Colond 

Main Body: — 

Major-General Talbot Coke and StafiE : 2nd Dorset 

Half Battalion, 2nd Middlesex Regiment. 
Bearer Company. 
Field Hospital 
loth Moimtain Battery. 

On the 5th, the brigade arrived at Elandslaagte, about 
eight miles beyond Modder Spruit The battalion camped 
here east of the railway not far from die station, and to the 
south of it 

Elandslaagte consists only of a railway station and a few 
houses, with a few collieries of some importance. It lies 
15 miles south of the Biggarsberg, which at this time was 
held by a large and enterprising force of the Boers. 

On the 8th April a draft arrived from England, consist- 
ing of — 

Lieutenant P. M. Large. 

Second-Lieutenant H. G. L. Bengough. 

Second-Lieutenant D. O. C. Newton. 

2 Sergeants, i Drummer, 2 Corporals, and 140 Privates 

This draft was composed chiefly of reservists of Section 
"D," and was very welcome, the battalion being much 
depleted by sickness. 

On the I2th April a draft from the Volunteer Battalions 
of the R^^ent arrived. It was formed into a separate 
company, designated the "Volunteer Company,'' and 
composed as under : — 

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Captain C. S. Roche, 17th Middlesex Rifle Volunteers. 
Lieutenant A. K. Grylls, ist V.B. Middlesex Regiment 
•Lieutenant C. D'O. A. C. Bowers, 2nd V.B. Middlesex 
Sergeant-Instructor W. G. Parker. 
3 Sergeants, 2 Dnunmers, 5 Corporals, and ioo Privates 

About this time it was notified in orders that many of 
the enemy had adopted khaki uniform and puttees. 

On the 20th April the following Divisional Order, dated 
the 19th idem, was promulgated : — 

" Lieutenant-General Sir Charles Warren, on relinquish- 
ing the command of the 5th Division, desires to tender his 
cordial thanks to officers and soldiers of all ranks, and to 
his sta£F, for the excellent work they have performed during 
several months' campaigning, and to express his admiration 
at the fortitude and courage they have shown through many 
privations, and the promptitude and alacrity they have 
always shown in carrying out all duties they have been 
called upon to perform. In bidding them a hearty ' good- 
bye' Sir Charles Warren hopes that he may again have 
the good fortune to meet them in camp or field" 

Sir Charles Warren was succeeded in the command of 
the 5th Division by Major-General H. J. T. Hildyard, C.B. 

The battalion remained at Elandslaagte until the 8th 
May. During part of this time C, D, E, and F Companies, 
under Major Blake, were detached to Lord Dundonald's 
camp near Modder Spruit, about three miles oflF. Owing 
to Ae strength of the Boer forces on the Biggarsberg 
during the time, constant vigilance was necessary. 

Elandslaagte proved a very unhealthy spot, and nearly 
every one in the battalion suflFered more or less from 
dysentery, while there were several deaths. During April 

*Joined on ISth April. 

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I sergeant, 2 corporals, and 27 privates were invalided to 

During the stay at Elandslaagte the battalion was con- 
tinually occupied in outpost duty and in making defensive 
works. No serious attempt was made by the Boers against 
Elandslaagte, though on 21st April a demonstration was 
made and some shells fired at the naval guns on Battle 
Ridge (the site of the engagement in October, 1899), 2nd 
on the 8th May a picquet of the Rifle Brigade at the 
railway station was attacked by a small party of Boers. 

On 1st May, 1900, the strength of the battalion amounted 
to 30 officers, 1,296 other ranks 

On 2nd May Major Blake assumed command of the 
battalion, Lieutenant-Colonel Hill succeeding to the 
temporary command of the loth Brigade, during the 
absence, on leave, of Major-General Talbot Coke. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Hill resumed command of the battalion on 
15th May. 

On I2th May a draft of Militia Reservists joined ; 
strength i corporal and 83 privates 

On 9th May the battalion left Elandslaagte and marched 
to Sunday's River BlufiP, preparatory to takii^ part in the 
general movement against the Biggarsberg, and in 
particular against the pass leading from Waschbank to 
Glencoe. By the nth the whole of the 5th Division were 
advancing to a position on the Indodo Mountain. In this 
movement the battalion was on the left: it remained at 
Sunday's River BluflF until the 13th, when in the afternoon 
sudden orders were received to send all tents back to 
Elandslaagte. Marching at 5 p.m., the battalion crossed 
Sunday's River and advanced in a northerly directioa On 
the following day the advance was continued : the 15th was 
a day of rest The Boers were reported to have left the 
hills in front, which they had occupied two days previously, 

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and on the i6th the advance was resumed still in a 
northerly direction, and at the dose of the inarch a hill east 
of Wessels Nek was occupied The following morning 
Waschbank was reached, and the battalion bivouacked 
there, dose to the main road to Glencoe. 

Here the whole of the 5th Division were united, and the 
battalion was engaged in repairing the railway bridge and 
line, which had been badly damaged by the Boers. The 
whole brigade partidpated, in rdays of 200 men, in this 
work, which was most essential, as the bulk of the supplies 
for the troops could only be conveyed by rail, road trans- 
port through the Biggarsberg being almost useless, and it 
being very necessary to push forward supplies at this 
juncture as rapidly as possible. The General Officer Com- 
manding 5th Division was directed to keep the roads dear 
for supply parks and columns, and to assist them where 

During the march just described considerable hardship 
was endured by the troops owing to the lack of rations 
and blankets, due to the great difficulties encountered by 
the transport 

At 4.30 am. on the i8th May, the battalion marched 
(with the whole of the 5th Division, except the Durban 
Light Infantry) through the pass to Glencoe, without 
encountering any opposition. At Glencoe Junction traces 
of the hasty departure of the enemy could be seen, many 
tents being left standing, and a quantity of ammunition 
being abandoned. This was destroyed by us. After a 
halt from 10 a.m. to about 3 p.m. the battalion marched to 
Hattingh's Spruit, en route, it was hoped, for Newcastle 
and the Transvaal, but owing to difficulties of supply it was 
found necessary to order back the 10th Brigade to Glencoe, 
and after being marched northward on the 19th for an hour 
and a half orders were received directing this retirement, 

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and the battalion arrived at Glencoe in the evening. Here 
the first touch of winter was experienced, the mornings at 
this altitude being extremely cold 

The march from Waschbank northwards was by far the 
most trying which had been encountered up to this stage 
of the campaign, the greater part of it being uphill, and at 
very steep gradients, but in spite of the large number of 
recently joined men, very few fell out 

The following message was received on the 19th from 
the Assistant Adjutant-Greneral, 5th Division, and pub- 
lished for information : — 

'' The General Officer Commanding is gratified to learn 
that Sir Redvers BuUer attributes the successful occupation 
of Glencoe largely to the action of the 5th Divisioa 

The General Officer Commanding thanks all 

ranks for the very hard work they have done during the 
above operation.'-' 

The division having been entrusted with repairing the 
railway line to Newcastle (which had by now been occupied 
by the mounted troops and the 2nd Division), the battaUon 
marched on the 21st to Wild Duck Vlei, about six miles 
north of Glencoe; the Dublin Fusiliers (who had mean- 
time joined the brigade) going to Hattingh's Spruit, while 
the I ith Brigade moved further north. 

" E " Company, under Major G. W. W. Savile, remained 
at Glencoe to bring on the transport which had gone back 
to Waschbank for supplies. This company rejoined the 
battalion on the 23rd May, and the whole force marched 
on to Dannhauser in the afternoon. 

The following day beii^ the Queen's Birthday, the 
troops turned out in fatigue dress and gave three cheers for 
Her Most Gracious Majesty: an extra ration of bacon, 
cheese, and rum was sanctioned, but owing to the non- 

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arrival of the Supply Coltimn from Glencoe, only the latter 
could be issued 

The heavy marching of the past few weeks now began 
to tell on the boots^ and many men were nearly barefooted. 
Lieutenant Bengough was accordingly sent back to Lady- 
smith to bring up a supply. 

On the 26th May the battalion again marched north- 
wards, reaching Ingagane the same day, and Newca,stle on 
the 27th. On the march to Ingagane, Majuba Hill was 
seen for the first time, about 40 miles off. The battalion 
was in bivouac at Newcastle till this 31st May, and after 
that in camp till the 5th June. 

The Boers were occupying the passes through the 
Drakensberg leading to the Orange Free State (now the 
Orange River Colony) and Transvaal, north-west, north, 
and north-east of Newcastle, including Laing's Nek. 

The 4th Division and the lith Brigade moved towards 
Utrecht on the 28th May, and the 2nd Division was about 
Ingogo in contact with the advanced posts of the enemy. 
Utrecht surrendered on the 29th. 

Lieutenant Bengough returned from Lad3^smith bringing 
with him 700 pairs of boots, which were badly wanted, also 
many presents from England for the troops. 

On 1st June, 1900, the strength of the battalion was 30 
officers, I warrant officer, and 1,296 other ranks. 

One sergeant, 2 corporals, and 27 other ranks were 
invalided during May. 

On 3rd June the first consignment of khaki serge 
clothing was received, it having been decided that this 
material should take the place of the khaki drill 

About this time the following Field Army Order was 
published : — 

"The General Commanding has much pleasure in 
communicating to the troops the following tel^jram which 
he has received from Her Majesty, and his reply thereto : — 

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"Windsor Castle, 15th May, 1900. 

" To General Sir Redvers Buller, Dundee, Natal. 

" Delighted at your success and your entry into Dundee. 
Trust all wounded are doing welL 


" To Queen Victoria, Windsor Castle. 

" Troops grateful for your Majesty's gracious telegram. 
They have had very hard work, but I am thankful to say 
only seven wounded, all of whom are doing well 


On the 5th June the battalion moved to De Wet's Farm, 
about ten miles ofiP, and bivouacked there, this being the 
commencement of the movement which was to turn the 
Laing's Nek position. 

On the following day the battalion, under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hill, five squadrons South African Light Horse, 
and a field battery moved out under Major-General Talbot 
Coke, to make a reconnaissance in the direction of Van 
Wyk, a hill overlooking Botha's Pass. 

It was intended that this force should return to their 
bivouacs the same day, and in consequence only arms and 
ammunition were carried, but the occupation of Van Wyk 
was found necessary, and in doing this the enemy was 
encountered, and a stiff engagement took place, in which 
the Boers, with great dash, endeavoured to drive us from 
the hill, but without success. At 2.30 p.m the remainder of 
the loth Bngade marched for Van Wyk in support and 
arrived the same night 

Six companies of the battalion were engaged — ^the Volun- 
teer company being for the first time in action — and one 
company (E) acted as escort to the field battery. 

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Our casualties were : — 

Killed— No. 3365 Private J. PollicutL 

Wounded — ^Five rank and file (one dangerously). 

As it had been intended that the battalion should return 
for dinner, no raticms were carried, and consequently most 
of the companies had no food whatever from 7 a.m. on the 
5th to 9 ajn. oa the 6th June ; in addition to which they 
had no blankets or great-coats — ^it being impossible to get 
the transport within several miles of the battalion that night 
— and were obliged to bivouac without covering throughout 
the bitterly cold nig^t of the 5th — 6th on the summit of 
the Drakensberg. 

The seizure of Van Wyk enabled the 2nd and nth 
Brigades to occupy Botha's Pass on the 8th June with little 
loss. The battalion acted as escort to the guns. On the 
9th the whole force advanced into the Orange Free State 
through Botha's Pass, and in the direction of Alleman's Nek. 

On the high veldt rapid progress was made, and the com- 
panies, being able to advance on a broad front (column of 
companies) marched at considerably over the regulation 

Gans Vlei was reached on the loth, and the battalion 
bivouacked there for the night On the i ith the advance 
was continued towards Alleman's Nel^ which was reported 
to be held by a very large force of Boers, strongly en- 
trenched, and in possession of heavy artillery and pom- 

The force formed for attack about three miles from the 
Nek, the 2nd Brigade being on the left of the road running 
through the Nek, and the loth Brigade on the right of it 
opposite the main positioa The nth Brigade were in 
reserve with a cavalry brigade on each flank, and supported 
by heavy artillery and pom-poms. 

The first line of the loth Brigade was found by the 2nd 

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Dorset Regiment, and the 2nd line by the 2nd Middlesex 
Regiment, the Royal Dublin Fusiliers being on the right 
flank of the advance. 

The battalion, in extended order, advanced by half bat- 
talions, the right half battalion in front under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hill, the left, under Major Blake, following. 

During the whole of the advance the firing, both artillery 
and rifle, was incessant, and for the first time the sound of 
our own pom-poms was heard. 

The position was carried by about 5 p.m. The brunt of 
the battle was borne by the Dorset Regiment, who behaved 
with splendid gallantry, losing 10 killed and 40 wotmded 

The behaviour of the battalion was, however, no less con- 
spicuous, advancing, as it did, under heavy shell and rifle 
fire, without the slightest cover, as if on parade. At one 
time the greater part of the battalion was ordered to move 
to a flank, so as to come up on the left of the Dorsets and 
carry a small though steep conical hill detached from the 
main ridge. This flank movement, always a trying and diffi- 
cult feat under fire, was carried out with exemplary pre- 

Our artillery fire was particularly effective, many of the 
shantzes being completely destroyed. 

In this action, which resulted in the Boers evacuating 
Laing's Nek, and the clearance of the enemy from Natal, 
the battalion lost one man killed — No. 2407 Private A. 
Davis — and eight wounded 

The battalion bivouacked on the night of the nth on 
the position they had won, marching to Volksrust on the 
following day and to Charlestown on the 13th. 

Here Major-General J. Talbot Coke, commanding loth 
Brigade, addressed the battalion as follows: — 

" Colonel HiH, Officers, Non-commissioned Officers and 

Men of the 2nd Middlesex Regiment, — ^I want to take this 

L 2 

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Opportunity of speaking to you of the work which, has been 
done, and the privations endured by you, during the past 
week Here we are at Majuba ; the Boers have been en- 
trenching themselves in that position for months past, and 
they said they intended to stay thore until the war was 
over. Now, as you know, we started away last week in 
what was intended to be a reconnaissance, and we Uttle 
thought when we left De Wef s farm with our dinners being 
cooked but what we should return the same day. We never 
thought we should have to stay all night, but the position 
(Van Wyk) was an important one. I don't wish to praise 
the Middlesex more than you deserve, but the honour is 
with you all for the manner in which you won and held 
Van Wyk, that being the key to the whole work. By hold- 
ing that position as you did, we were able to gain Botha's 
Pass, and thence, as you know, we got into the Free State. 

"Then, again, your action at Alleman's Nek. That 
battle was fought and won by the loth Brigade. There was 
another brigade on the left, but they did not dose with the 
enemy, and it was a very serious position. We found the 
Boers there, strongly posted, about 2,800 strong, but a great 
many retired at the commencement of the fight ; those who 
remained were stubborn and determined men, and I must 
say had not the Middlesex come up at the most critical 
moment, just as the sun was setting, it might have proved 
very serious, as it was a grave situation, and I felt very 
anxious myself, knowing that if the position was not taken 
that night we should have to retire, which would have been 
very unfavourable for us, for Sir Redvers Buller, and for 
the whole Army. But, however, the Middlesex came up, 
and the position was taken, the Boers running away pell- 
melL When they retired they also left Laing's Nek— I 
cannot say 'retired' — they simply fled — a disorganised 

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" This makes the third time you have distinguished your- 
selves>. and you have covered yourselves with honour and 
glory, and when you read the history of this war in years 
to come, you should be proud to think that you belonged to 
that good old corps, who fully maintained the name they 
deserve, ' Diehards.' 

" This regiment has always been fortunate in arriving at 
the most critical moment The first time you distinguished 
yourselves was at Spion Kop, when you saved the positron 
and also the Lancashire Brigade, who were on the point of 
retiring. The Boers said they intended to make it a second 
Majuba, driving the English into Natal, and shooting them 
down like rabbits as they ran; and perhaps they would 
have done so had not the Middlesex Regiment arrived just 
in time ; but, thank God, they did- not run. It is a matter 
of controversy whether that was a victory or not, but I say 
it was, and will be looked upon as such. 

"The second time you distinguished yourselves was at 
Van Wyk, when you, and you alone, fought and held that 
position, and did not retire, but stayed there like men and 
heroes, all through a night of bitter cold and frost, without 
food or shelter, or even a great-coat 

"The third time you distinguished yourselves was at 
Alleman's Nek, and the reason I put you in the second line 
that day was because Wellington and Napoleon alwa)rs said 
they kept their best and bravest men in the second line to 
consolidate the victory, and knowing this regiment for the 
work they had done, I acted in the same manner. 

" I must tell you I have received congratulations from Sir 
Redvers BuUer and other distinguished officers, and I think 
it is only fair I should share them with you. 

" There is only one thing more I should like to speak to 
you about ; it is that through all the trying times you have 
undergone, and the terrible hardships you have suffered, I 

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am pleased to say that I have heard no grumbling or com- 

"We are now going to stay here for a few dstys to renew 
our supplies before we advance, and I know you have all 
earned this much-needed rest 

''Colonel Hill, Officers, Non-commissioned Officers and 
Men of the Middlesex Regiment, once more I thank you, 
and I am sorry for the valuable lives you have lost, and for 
the seriously wounded.** 

On the 1 6th June the brigade moved to Volksrust and 

Tel^prams of congratulation on the deliverance of Natal 
from the enemy, and on the conduct of the troops, which 
had been received by Sir Redvers Buller, were published in 
Army Orders, with his replies thereto. Among them were 
messages from Her Majesty Queen Victoria, the Governor 
and Prime Minister of Natal, and the Governor of Victoria. 

Towards the end of June a flying column was organised 
to reconnoitre in the direction of Amersfoort, and, if pos- 
sible, to occupy a position dominating that town. 

The battalion, which formed part of the column, struck 
camp on 27th Jime, and moved south of the railway h'ne 
ready to advance in the direction of Zandspruit On the 
following day the loth Brigade marched to Graskop, about 
17 miles. On the 29th the advance towards Amersfoort 
took place, but the Boers were foimd in strength— especially 
in artillery — and in the evening the whole force retired 
under heavy shell fire to Graskop, " E " Company (who had 
occupied a high hill on the left of the advance and fired some 
long range volleys and also with maxim gun) forming the 
rear-guard. The 19th Hussars and Royal Dublin Fusiliers 
both sustained some casualties, but there were none in the 
Middlesex Regiment On the 30th Jime the flying column 
was broken up, and on the following day the battalion 
returned to Volksrust 

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The strength of the battalion on ist July, 1900, was 29 
officers and 1,255 other ranks. During June, 3 sergeants, 3 
corporals, and 24 privates were invalided to England. 

During the greater part of the month of July one half bat- 
taUon remained at Volksrust, the other ("E," "G," "H," 
and Volunteer Companies), under Major Blake, with a 
machine gun detachment, movix^ out to a defensive posi- 
tion between Hout Nek and De Jager*s Nek. Although 
not actually engaged during this time, the Boers were con- 
tinually annoying our advanced cavalry posts, and there 
were frequent alarms. The position held was strengthened 
by entrenchments and sangars, and constant vigilance was 
necessary. The Volunteer Company rejoined headquarters 
on the 2 1st, but the remainder of the detachment remained 
on the Hout Nek position until relieved by the Lancashire 
Fusiliers before the battalion moved to Ingagane. 

On the 2ist July " A," " B,*' " C," and " D " Companies, 
under Major Lempriere, proceeded to Zandspruit in 
accordance with orders received from General Officer 
Commanding 5th Divisioa 

The following troops also formed part of the column : — 

19th Hussars (less half squadron). 

69th Battery, Royal Field Artillery. 

No. 6 Company, Western Division Royal Garrison 

Artillery (with two 4.7 guns). 
No. 37 Company, Roy3l Engineers. 
Divisional Ammunition Column, 
loth Brigade Bearer Company, 
loth Brigade Field Hospital. 

This force was under the command of the Officer Com- 
manding 19th Hussars, and was the right column of three 
demonstrating towards Amersfoort, the whole force being 
commanded by Major-General Hildyard. 

On the 2 1st the right colimm halted at Zandspruit, and 

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on the following day marched to Graskop, and on the 23rd 
moved across and joined the centre and left columns. On 
the 24th an advance was made towards Amersf oort, the 
Boers retiring. The companies of the battalion bivouacked 
on this night on the hills about five miles east of Paardekop, 
above Mooimeisjesfontein, and remained there until the 
28th, when they returned to Landspruit, and on the 29th 
marched back to Volksrust 

The strength on the ist August was 27 officers, i warrant 
officer, 1,199 other ranks. During the previous month 2 
sergeants, i corporal, and 47 privates were invalided to 

On the 4th August the battalion proceeded by rail to 
Ingagane, where five companies were stationed, " A " and 
"B" Companies, under command of Major Lemi»iere, 
moving to Dannhauser, and " C " and " D " Companies to 
Rooi Pynt, a post on the main road nearer Newcastle. A 
few days later ** E " Company, under Major Savile, marched 
to Fort Macready, south of Newcastle, relieving a company 
of the Imperial Light Infantry, and on the 8th August " D *• 
Company, under Captain Pemberton, proceeded to New- 
castle, the right half company garrisoning Windsor Castle 
and the left Fort Haldane. Both these posts were on a 
ridge north of the town, the former being close to the rail- 
way line running from Newcastle to Laing's Nek, and also 
covering the wagon road to Utrecht via Wool's Drift 

On the 9th, Captain Storr took over the duties of com- 
mandant at Dannhauser from Major Lempriere, who pro- 
ceeded with "B" Company to Sikof u, a small kopje situated 
about eig^t miles north-east of Newcastle in the valley of 
the Buflfalo. 

By the loth Ai^fust the whole battalion, except "A" 
Company, which remained at Dannhauser, was in and 
around Newcastle, " F " and " G " Companies occupying 

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the western forts, and " H " and Volunteer Companies being 
in the town, where they relieved the Imperial Light 

Colonel Hill was appointed to the command of the troops 
at Newcastle, Major Blake succeeding to that of the bat- 

The companies were distributed as under : — 

"A" Company, Dannhauser. 

"B" Company, Sikofu. 

" C " Company, Signal Hill. 

"D" Company, Windsor Castle and Fort Haldane. 

"E" Company, Fort Macready. 

" F " Company, Fort Hay. 

"G" Company, Fort Metcalf. 

" H " Company, Headquarters. 

Volunteer Company, Headquarters. 

On the 1 2th August the Boers blew up the railway about 
six miles from Fort Macready. 

On the 13th a draft of Militia Reservists joined from 
Englarfd ; strength, 3 corporals, 99 privates. 

On the 19th "A" Company was withdrawn from Dann- 
hauser to Ingagane, and on the following day to Rooi Pynt, 
but owing to an attack by Boers on Buffalo Flats, it was 
entrained at Ingagane and re-occupied Dannhauser at 1.20 
a.m., 2 1 St At 2.15 a.m. the line was again blown up two 
miles north of the station, barely an hour after the train 
passed in which they were. 

Firing was heard at Ingogo on the 20th, and the cavalry 
picquets were driven in ; and on the 21st the Boers shelled 
the post at Donga Spruit, close to Sikofu, and blew up the 
railway line there. On the 22nd the cavahy from the post 
at Matthew's Farm, near the Utrecht road, reconnoitred 
towards Wool's Drift, and were driven back past their post, 

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^pdiich the Boers looted "D" Company fired extreme range 
volleys from Windsor Castle, and the Boers stopped and 
dismounted out of range. Later, guns came out from New- 
castle and shelled the enemy, who retired The head- 
quarters and companies in the defence camp, Newcastle, 
also moved out in support on this occasion, but did not come 
into contact with the enemy. 

About this time the enemy was particularly active on the 
east side of Newcastle, their objective being the railway, 
which they wished to destroy. If their efforts had been 
successful an immense amount of delay would have been 
caused in forwarding supplies north. Attempts on the rail- 
way were favoured by the nature of the ground, which 
enabled the Boers to come up within rifle range un- 
observed ; tbis entailed great vigilance on the part of the 
troops. The line was frequently patrolled, and, in addition, 
trenches were made close to the railway, in which the men 
slept at night. The whole of the troops stood to arms at 
daybreak every morning. 

The strength of the battalion on ist September was 26 
officers, I warrant officer, 1,228 other ranks — 5 sergeants, 
2 corporals and 49 privates havix^ been invalided to 
England diuring the preceding month. 

On the 5th September, in conjunction with General Hild- 
yard's occupation of Wakkerstroom, a reconnaissance was 
made towards Wool's Drift on the Buffalo River, and 
Umbana Hill, on the left bank of that river, was occupied 
by " E " and " F " Companies, who entrenched themselves 
there. Boers were seen in their front. Nothing worthy of 
note took place, and " E " Company returned to Newcastle 
on the 8th, followed on the 13th by the rest of the force, 
except "F" and "G" Companies, who remained at 

The undermentioned troops took part in this operation : 

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1st (Royal) Dragoons. 

13th Hussars. 

4 guns 19th Battery, Royal Field Artillery. 

4 Companies 2nd Middlesex Regiment ("E," "F," 

I Section Field Hospital 

On the 27th September, " H " Company and the Volun- 
teer Company proceeded to Dundee en route for De 
Jager's Drift on the Buffalo, 18 miles north-east of Dundee. 
"A" Company followed to Dundee from Dannhauser on 
the 7th October, encamping on Talana Hill, and joining the 
two first-named companies at De Jager*s Drift on the 18th. 
These companies remained there until the nth November, 
when they returned to Dtmdee, and there picking up " G ** 
Company (which had proceeded to Talana on 20th 
October), joined an ammunition column, etc, under Major 
Jervois, R.A., and marched on the 12th to Dannhauser, on 
the 13th to Ingagane, and on the 14th to Newcastle. 

The strength of the battalion on the ist October, 1900, 
was 30 officers, i warrant officer, and 1,185 other ranks. 
One corporal, one drummer, and 25 privates were invalided 
to England during the preceding month, and one corporal, 
time expired, was sent home during the same period 

While at Newcastle the men were occasionally practised 
in marching, and were frequently employed on convoy duty 
between Newcastle and Umbana, the " half way house " to 
Utrecht Whenever possible, musketry practice took place. 
The companies at the outlying posts were not infrequently 
in contact with the Boers. 

On the sth October, "E** and "F" Companies, with 
two guns, marched out to cover the left flank of a convoy 
proceeding to Utrecht These companies remained at 
Middlesex Hill and Umbana— covering Wool's Drift — 
until the loth, when " F " Company returned to Newcastle, 

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" E " Company remaining till the end of December, when 
the battalion moved to Utrecht 

The defences of Umbana covering the bridge at Wool's 
Drift were improved, and the company was frequently 
employed, together with others from Newcastle, in the 
protection of convoys, and in reconnaissances. For this 
purpose companies were frequently moved out for two or 
three days, bivouacking at night On these occasions 
great vigilance was necessary, as well as considerable force, 
as Boers were plentiful on the Transvaal side of the 
Buffalo, and on i6th November thirteen men of the York 
and Lancaster Regiment proceeding from Utrecht to New- 
castle were captured between Utrecht and Umbana. 

Orders were received on 23rd October to prepare a draft 
of 2 sergeants, 3 corporals, and 150 privates for the ist 
Battalion in India. This was subsequently cancelled. 

On the 1st November the strength of the battalion was 
30 officers, I warrant officer, and 1,159 other ranks. During 
October i corporal and 18 privates were invalided to 
England, and 3 privates were sent home time expired. 

On the 24th November, " F '* Company, with an estab- 
lishment as under, was formed into a Mounted Infantry 
Company : — 

I Captain. 

1 Subaltern. 
4 Sergeants. 
4 Corporals. 

2 Buglers. 
50 Privates. 
70 Horses. 

Captain R. de H. Burton and Second-Lieutenant J. H. 
Furlong were the officers of the company on its formation. 
The establishment was subsequently raised and another 
subaltern added 

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On the 29th November "G" Company formed the 
guard of honour, and " H " Company the cordon of police, 
on the occasion of Lord Roberts* visit to Newcastle. 

The strength of the battalion on ist December, 1900, 
was 31 officers, i warrant officer, and 1,118 other ranks. 
During November i sergeant and 19 privates were 
invalided, and 2 corporals and 14 privates were sent to 
England for discharge on the expiration of their period of 

Owing to the frequent attacks on trains and attempts at 
train-wrecking, the following circular memorandum from 
Army Headquarters, dated Pretoria, 27th November, 1900, 
was published for information : — 

" Instructions for officers and men travelling by rail. 

"I. All officers and men traveDing by train on all 
occasions must be fully armed. 

" II. The senior officer travelling by train is responsible 
for its defence if attacked. 

"III. For this purpose every officer travelling should 
satisfy himself whether he is the senior officer in the train 
or not 

" IV. The senior officer on the train should see that the 
men travelling by the train have their rifles handy, and that 
one or two men are detailed to keep a look out 

"V. It has lately been noticed that the enemy, when 
they attempt the capture of a train, ride up behind a train 
when it is going up a grade and detach the vacuum hose 
from the rear of the brake-van ; they then open fire along 
both sides of the train to prevent anyone getting out 

"VI. To avoid this, a truck is attached to the rear of 
each train with the vacuum hose disconnected If any 
troops are travelling on the train, the senior officer present 
should see that some of them are posted, if possible, on the 
rear truck. 

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"VII. Engine drivers have instructions to blow a long 
blast on the bass whistle if they have any reason to think 
that anything is wrong. Troops should be instructed to 
stand to arms on hearing this warning. 

" VIII. When a delay occurs at any post on the line, the 
senior officer on the train will report personally to the 
commandant of the post" 

On the 13th December Major G. B. Lempriere assumed 
command of the battalion, Major Blake being placed on 
the sick list 

On the 13th December "G" Company relieved "B" 
Company at Sikofu, and on the i6th "H" Company 
marched to Utrecht 

The following order with reference to equipment was 
issued by Brigadier-General G. F. Bum-Murdoch on 2otii 
December : — 

" You will at once take steps to fully equip every officer, 
non-commissioned officer, and man in your battalion with a 
rifle or carbine, accoutrements, and ammunition. This 
includes all staff-seigeants, drummers, and stretcher- 
bearers, and is with a view to everybody taking a place in 
the defence line in case of attack. 

"When stretcher-bearers are actually employed as sudi, 
they will be considered as under the Red Cross, and will 
not then carry their rifle or equipment" 

On the 24th December a battalion order was published 
enjoining increased vigilance, and all possible precautions, 
during the ensuing Christmas and New Year seasons, as 
it was considered probable that the enemy might take 
advantage of them to attack our posts. 

On the night of the 25th-26th December, the Boers 
attacked Utrecht and entered the town^ but were driven 
out, with loss, just before daybreak. " H " Company, vnho 
held a position on North Hill overlooking the town, did not 

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come under fire, as the enemy mistook that position. It 
was a bright, moonlight night The attack was expected, 
and the troops consequently on the alert Those occupying 
the trenches in front of the town withdrew into it about 
midnight, and took up positions rotmd the Supply Dep6t 
and along hedges in the town. The Boers made for the 
trenches, the position of which they apparently knew, and 
found them, to their great surprise, empty. This caused 
some consternation, but their leaders assuring them that 
the soldiers were revelling in the town, they advanced, and 
were met by a well-directed fire, whidi caused them to 
retire. Their casualties were not known, but were believed 
to be heavy. On our side two men were wounded The 
attack was executed under the leadership of Commandant 
Petrowsky, a Russian serving with the Boers, from whom 
the f oDowing letter was received on the eve of the attack 
by the Officer Commanding Troops, Utredit : — 

^ I hereby propose to make an agreement with you, since 
Christmastide is dose at hand, namely, if you wish to enjoy 
a quiet Christmas at Utrecht you must send me a quantity 
of whisky, coflFee, and flour .... to a neutral farm in the 
neighbourhood, from where I shall fetch it ... . If you 
send me these things I promise on my word of honour that 
you shall have a quiet, undisturbed Christmas at Utrecht 
If you do not, then rest assured that I shall fight you on the 
night of the 25th-26th December, and will not let you be 
unmolested. Awaiting yom: reply, 

" I have the honour, etc, etc 

**P.S. — ^Please send the special answer to this to the 
farm of Long Piet (Uys)." 

Commandant Petrowsky was mortally wounded in this 
very fight, died the following day, and was buried on 
Pudding Kop, a hill near Utrecht 

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It is scarcely necessary to say that the whisky, coflFee, 
etc, were not sent out 

In consequence of this attack on Utrecht, the whole 
battalion, except ** B " Company, which remained at New- 
castle, was moved to Utrecht, where there was an 
important supply dep6t Headquarters, " A," " D," and the 
Volunteer Companies, proceeded on the 26th, starting at 4 
a.m., under command of Colonel Hill : " G " Company, from 
Sikof u, followed on the 28th, and " C " and " E " Com- 
panies on the 29th. "F" (M.I.) Company proceeded to 
Vryheid about this time. 

The strength of the battalion on ist January, 

1901. 1901, was 34 officers, i warrant officer, and 1,077 
other ranks. During the preceding month there 
were sent home i sergeant, i corporal, and 28 privates 
invalided, and 9 privates time expired 

The distribution of the companies at Utrecht in January 
was as follows : — 

" A," " E," and " H " Companies on North HilL 

" C " Company on East HilL 

•* D," " G," and Voltmteer Companies in Utrecht town. 

" B " Company remained at Newcastle, and " F " (M.L) 

Company arrived at Utrecht from Vryheid about 20th 


The Natal District Orders of ist January published the 
following telegrams conveying New Yearns greetings to 
the troops f rc^ Her Majesty Queen Victoria : — 

" From V.R.L to Lord Kitchener. 

" My heartfelt good wishes to you and all ranks under 
your command for Christmas and the New Year." 

To which Lord Kitchener replied : — 

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" To Her Majesty the Queen. 
" Osbome. 

" Your Majest/s most gracious message has been com- 
municated to the troops. In their name I humbly b^ to 
express our sincere hope that the New Year may prove one 
of great happiness to Your Majesty and the Royal Family." 

Orders were issued about this time that all outpost forts 
were to be surrounded by barbed wire entanglements to 
prevent their being rushed at night, and that at posts where 
there were horse-lines, the latter were to be similarly 

Captain and Adjutant H. F. MacEwan took over the 
duties (in addition to his own) of station staff officer, 
Utrecht, on nth January, from Lieutenant Headlam, York 
and Lancaster Regiment Captain H. Storr took over 
these duties from Captain MacEwan on 19th January. 

On the 25th January, the melancholy news was received, 
in a telegram to the General Officer Commanding, from the 
Governor of Natal, of the death on the 22nd of Her Majesty 
Queen Victoria. 

The following telegrams were published for information 
on the 27th : — 

" From Edward Rex to Lord Kitdiener. 

" Am much toudied by your kind telegrams of sympathy, 
and beg you to convey thanks to my gallant army in Soudi 

Lord Kitchener sent the following reply : — 

" Your Majesty's gracious tel^pram has been communi- 
cated to the troops. On behalf of the army in South 
Africa, I humbly heg to express our feelings of the utmost 
loyalty and devotion to Your Majesty." 

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The accession of His Majesty King Eiftward the Seventh 
of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and 
Emperor of India, was proclaimed in London on the 24th 

Orders were issued from Army Headquarters, Pretoria, 
that all officers were to wear the prescribed mourning in 
consequence of the death of Her Majesty Queen Victoria. 
A circular memorandum was, however, subsequently 
published directing officers not to wear mourning on qut- 
post duty, or in the proximity of the enemy. 

On the 1st February, 1901, the strength of the battalion 
was 34 officers, i warrant officer, and 1,051 other ranks. 
One sergeant, one corporal and 9 privates, invalids, and 7 
privates, time expired, were sent to England during 

The following extract from the "London Gazette" of 
28th December, 1900, was published for information in 
Battalion Orders of 6th February: — 

The Duke of Cambridge's Own (Middlesex Regiment). 
Major-General and Honorary Lieutenant-General H. Kent 
to be colonel, vice General Sir G. H. S. Willis, G.C.B., 
deceased; dated 30th November, igoa 

On the 13th February a force moved out from Utrecht, 
under command of Brigadier-General J. F. Bum-Murdoch, 
C.B., with a convoy of 300 wagons containing supplies for 
a large force under General Sir J. D. P. French, KC.B., 
which was at that time sweeping the Eastern Transvaal 
from north to south. This portion of the Transvaal lying 
to the east of Utrecht is very mountainous and peculiarly 
difficult at all times for military operations, and more 
especially so in the heavy rains which, are common during 
the summer, and render it well nigh impassable for any 
kind of wheeled traffic 

The force was composed as under : — 

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Lieut. -General Henry Kent, 


The Duke of Cambridge's Own (Middlesex Regiment). 

1900— Present Date. 

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I Squadron 1st (Royal) Dragoons. 

500 men Natal Volunteer Composite Regiment, under 

Lieutenant-Colonel Evans» Border Motmted Rifles. 
I Section 19th Battery, R.F.A., with two I2pdr. guns. 
*i Company Royal Lancaster Regiment 
*4 Companies 2nd Middlesex Regiment 

*2 Companies York and Lancaster Regiment 
*i Company Royal Dublin Fusiliers. 

On the first day the force marched to Knight's Farm, on 
the Belelasberg, about five miles south-east of Utrecht, 
where the Boers were surprised and lost eight killed. The 
British had one man of the Volunteer Composite Regiment 
wounded Rain b^^ to fall heavily on the departure of 
the column, and the ascent of the hill (four miles long) up 
the Berg, on which is Knight's Farm, was rendered most 
difficult for the wagons. Serious delay was caused, as each 
wagon required four span of oxen to get up the ascent 

On the 14th, the column remained at Knight's Farm 
waiting for the convoy to come up. Trendies were dug 
during the day. The mist was dense, and the Boers, 
knowing the country well, could have attacked any moment, 
as they were in close proximity. 

On the 15th the wagons had all arrived, and the force 
moved forward to One Tree Hill, about eight miles further 
on towards the Elandsbei^, but at a very slow rate, as the 
rains continued to fall, and the roads, or rather tracks, 
resembled bogs more than anything else. 

The mounted troops were far in advance, and the 
infantry were disposed as under: — 

*Under oommand of Major G. W. W. SftvOe, Sod Middleaex Regimaol. with 
Ueatenaiit H. B. Welch at Staff Offioer. 

t**B** Company came in from Newoastle, and wat commanded by Captain B. S. 
Boobc of the Volnnteer Company. 

M 2 

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4 Companies in front 

2 Companies on the flanks. 

2 Companies as rear guard 

The rearguard arrived at One Tree Hill at midnight, 
everybody and everything completely wet through. In 
spite of this, however, and of being without blankets or 
great coats, and in spite of being on half-rations, the troops 
were cheerf uL 

On the following day the advance was continued. It 
was still raining hard Everywhere were seen indications 
of the hasty retreat of the Boers, freshly killed sheep and 
poultry being left hanging on trees. These were gladly 
annexed by the troops, who were still on half -rations. 

Up to the 17th February only 10 miles had been accom- 
plished It was still raining, and the clothes of the troops 
were completely saturated, as well as their equipment, thus 
adding considerably to the weight carried by the men. On 
the 1 8th a halt was ordered, as it was still raining in 
torrents, and on the 19th, 20th, and 21st only eight miles 
in all were accomplished It was then decided to divide 
the convoy into three portions, as owing to the frequent 
breaks down, due to the awful state of the country, it was 
f otmd impossible to bring on the whole at once, and the 
force for which the provisions were intended was nmning 
very short of food The column still continued on half — 
and sometimes quarter — orations. 

No further prc^ess could be made on the 22nd owing to 
continued rain. On the 23rd the troops endeavoured to 
inq)rove a drift over a swollen river, but after all it was 
found impossible to get wagons across, so one wagon-load 
of biscuits was hauled over by ropes. Quarter rations of 
tea and coffee were issued 

On the morning of the 24th the sun appeared, and the 
troops broke out in a cheer^ so welcome was the sight after 

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ten continuous days of rain and mist The wagons were 
able to moye on about three miles, when they were 
unloaded, and the supplies passed over a river by means of 
a raft to General DartneU's column, who were eagerly 
awaiting them. The scale of rations for the . Utrecht 
column was now ^oz. tea, ^oz. sugar, ^oz. jam per maa 
Fresh meat was plentiful, but there was no salt 

On the morning of 2nd March the rain b^;an agaia 
Large numbers of prisoners, surrendered Burghers, 
families and stock, were sent through to Utrecht, where a 
Burgher camp was formed. The enemy were now 
threatening the colimm and convoy, but our guns soon 
scattered theuL 

On the 7th March full rations were issued for the first 
time since leaving Utrecht, but on the following day the 
force was again on short rations, and the rain came down 
in torrents. 

On the Qth, after four days and three nights of 
continuous rain, the weather cleared up for a time, and on 
the 17th the return march to Utrecht was commenced, the 
Boers " sniping " the convoy all day. Utrecht was reached 
on 24th March. 

The hardships of this expedition were unquestionably 
far greater than any previously experienced during the 
campaign by the four companies of the battalion, and 
indeed probably by the whole of the troops who took part 
in it It rained in torrents for nearly the whole time, and 
the want of rations, and being continuously wet through, 
were seriously felt In addition, the knowledge that the 
delay in getting the convoy through seriously imperilled 
the success of General French's operations, added to the 
physical hardships which were well borne by the troops. 

Knight's Farm being now permanently occupied, the post 
on East Hill became unnecessary, and was abandoned 

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The companies at the end of March were distributed as 
follows: — 

"A,** "B," and ^'C* Companies KnighfsFarm. 

"D'* and ''E" Companies North HilL 

" F,** *' G;* " Ur and Volunteer Com- 
panies and Headquarters Utrecht Town. 

The strength of the battalion on ist March, igoi, was 33 
officers, I warrant officer, and 1,005 other ranks. Two 
sergeants, 3 corporals, and 30 privates were invalided to 
England during February. 

On 9th March Captain H. Storr was appointed adjutant 
of the battalion, vice Captain MacEwan, who resigned the 

By Newcastle Sub-district Orders of 26th March, it was 
directed that a reserve of seven days' supplies for the 
garrison occupying it should be kept in each fort 

The strength of the battalion cm ist April, igoi, was 36 
officers, I warrant officer, and 956 other ranks. Two 
sergeants, i drummer, and 17 privates invalided, and 15 
privates, time expired, were sent to England during March. 

On the 22nd April " D ** Company proceeded to Beacon 
Hill, an important point on the Belelasberg, about 10 miles 
from, and some 2,500 feet higher than, Utrecht, to establish 
a post there, and to protect the working party constructing 
the fort. The company remained there until relieved on 
the 30th April by a detachment of the Utrecht Mounted 
Police. On the subsequent disbandment of this force, the 
battalion again f tunished the garrison for this post during 
the remainder of their stay in Utrecht 

" G " Company, under Captain Eustace, marched on the 
26th April to Umbana, shortly afterwards proceeding to 
Koenigsberg, a post about 11 miles south-west of New- 
castle, near the Drakensberg. 

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The strength of the battalion on ist May, 1901, was 37 
officers, I warrant officer, and 929 other ranks. During 
April there were sent to England 2 corporals and 11 
privates, invalids, I sergeant and 5 privates, time expired, 
and I private, a prisoner. 

On the 4th May the Second Volunteer Service Company 
arrived at Headquarters for duty. 
This company was composed as under : — 
Captain A. A. C. Selfe, 2nd Volunteer Battalion 

Middlesex Regiment 
Lieutenant R. M. Williams, 2nd Volunteer Battalion 

Middlesex Regiment 
Lieutenant W. M. Stavers, 1st Volunteer Battalion 

Middlesex Regiment 
Sergeant-Instructor Coppard. 
4 Sergeants. 
I Lance-Sergeant 
4 Corporals. 
4 Lance-Corporals. 
I Drummer. 
75 Privates. 

The company took up a position in the Town defences. 
" C ** Company, under Major R. de H. Burton, proceeded 
on 5th May to Umbana in relief of " G " Company, which 
moved to Koenigsberg. 

The following valedictory order was published by 
Colonel A W. Hill on the departure of the First Volunteer 
Service Company for England: — 

** Colonel Hill cannot part with Captain Roche and his 
Volunteer Company without conveying to them the sincere 
regret of all ranks in the battalion at losing their gallant 
services, and he takes this opportunity of congratulating 
them on the good work they have performed during the 
last thirteen months in the field 

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** No company or battalion commander cotdd wish for a 
better lot of o&ocx% non-commissioned officers, and men, 
and the ^endid way in which they have assisted to main- 
tain the glorious traditions of the battalion in particular, 
and the Army in general, will, he hopes, be ever remem- 
bered with pride and satisfaction by them and their 

*In wishing them * good-bye' and a speedy and safe 
retttm home to their families and friends, he can only say 
that wherever the battalion may henceforth be stationed 
it win ever be ready to bestow a hearty welcome on any or 
an of them." 

The company left Utrecht on the /tii, and sailed for 
England in the ss. " Custodian " on the nth May, strength 
as under: — 

Captain C S. Roche. 

Lieutenant C D'O. A. C. Bowers. 

52 Non-commissioned officers and men. 

On the 25th May, Colonel A. W. Hin relinquished 
command of the battahon, having completed his period of 

Major G. B. Lempriere succeeded to the temporary 
command of the battalion, and of the troops at Utredit, 
Major Blake havii^ also proceeded to England on retire- 

Colonel Hin issued the fonowing farewen order on 
proceeding to England : — 

"In sayii^ 'good-bye' to the battalion. Colonel Hin 
desires to thank an ranks in it for the hearty support they 
at an times afiForded him ; he leaves it and the r^^ent in 
which he has served for over 28 years with the deepest 
r^^ret, but with confidence that it wiU ever mamta^ the 
high reputation it has hitherto borne, and that his 
successor, whoever he may be, win realise the i»oud and 

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honotirable position of commanding a battalion of such 
sterling good quality. His disappointment in not being 
able to take the battalion home is very great, but he 
sincerely wishes one and all every success, and a speedy 
and safe return home to the ' old country ' so dear to alL 

" His interest in the regiment will not cease with his 
departmre from it He trusts that that will be realised, 
and that, should it ever be in his power to extend a 
welcome to any of his old comrades, he will be glad to do 

" God bless you." 

The strength of the battalion on ist June, 1901, was 34 
officers, I warrant officer, and 963 other ranks. There were 
sent home during May, I private, invalided, and i corporal 
and 4 privates, time expired 

The strength of the battalion on 1st July, 1901, was 37 
officers, I warrant officer, and 936 other ranks. During 
June, I sergeant and 22 privates, invalids, and 2 privates, 
time expired, were sent home. 

The medal rolls of the battalion were forwarded to the 
War Office on 15th July, 1901, and contained the names of 
59 officers, I warrant officer, and 1,631 other ranks as 
entitled to the Queen's South African War Medal. 

Permission was at the same time given by Army Orders, 
South Africa, dated 8th July, 1901, to all those whose names 
were included in the medal roll to wear the ribbon of the 

Six Boers were captured near Beacon Hill on the 20th 

Some of the band instruments having been got up from 
the base, the band once more started practice, and played 
on church parade, at officers' mess, on Sunday afternoons, 
etc., much to the delight of the inhabitants of Utrecht 

It may be convenient here to give a short description of 

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the position at Utrecht, and of the state of aflFairs which 
prevailed in the South-Eastem Transvaal at this period 

The war had reached the guerilla stage. Our troops 
were in possession of all the principal towns, strategic 
points, and lines of railway, while on the side of the Boers 
there were numerous commandoes, living on the country 
and moving about from district to district as food for man 
and beast became more or less plentiful, attacking isolated 
posts and convoys, endeavouring to blow up railways, etc 
Some of these bands, e.g,^ Louis Botha's, which at this 
time was in the South-Eastem Transvaal, amounted to 
1,500 or 2,000 men, all determined fighters, and supplied 
with the very best information by means of their KafiBr 

It was to prevent these commandoes passing freely over 
the country that the blockhouse lines were instituted, and the 
duties of our troops were to hold these lines and the dep6ts 
formed for supplying the mobile colunms employed in 
" drives '' and in surrounding commandoes when they could 
be located, and in preventing the Boers from making use of 
the farms and country in their vicinity as bases of supply, 
and localities for rest and refreshment As a means to 
this end, all farms within the radii of our "effective 
occupation" were cleared of their inhabitants, who were 
sent generally to concentration camps, or allowed to live in 
the towns in British occupation. 

Utrecht was one of these, and after the departure of the 
District Commissioner (for whose administration the 
country was scarcely yet ready), a large, and in fact the 
principal, part of the duties of the Officer Commanding the 
Troops was in connection with questions of civil adminis- 
tration, grazing within protected areas, and cultivatioa 
These duties, as well as the defence of the town, devolved 
upon the Officer Commanding the Battalion, assisted by 

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his Station sta£F officer, the actual command of the battalion 
being del^^ated to the second-in-command 

Utiecht was held as an advanced post, and supply depdt 
It is situated in a sort of amphitheatre, at the mouth of a 
valley in the Belelasberg, a lofty ridge forming the north- 
eastern boundary of the valley of the Buffalo. In conse- 
quence of this position it was necessary to occupy the hills 
on either side, which was effectively done by the " North 
Hill " and " Knight's Farm " positions. A post was also 
established at Weltevreden, about three miles north-east of 
Utrecht in the valley above alluded to, barring the road to 
Thabankulu, a lofty mountain in possession of the enemy. 
The Knight's Farm position consisted of five forts, in 
addition to the farm buildings, which were fortified as a 
central reduit The forts were named as follows : — 
North Fort 
Fort Lunebei^. 
Fort Middlesex. 
South Fort 
The Bluff. 
Each fort was garrisoned by from 8 to 20 men, and there 
were in addition a detachment of mounted inf antxy and one 
of artillery, with two I2pdr. quick-firing guns. 

At North Hill were Forts "Robinson," "Hodgson," 
"Stewart," and "Andrews," with a naval I2pdr. in the 
first named 

At Beacon Hill the garrison consisted of i officer and 20 
inf antxy, and a similar detachment of mounted infantry. 

Weltevreden was garrisoned by one officer and 15 other 

The forts round the town were as follows, starting from 
the river on the north side of the town : — 
Fort Storr. 
Fort Pembertoa 

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Fort Oliver. 

Fort Savile. 

Fort Lempriere. 

Fort Ltunley. 

Fort Blake. 

Fort Piper. 


Fort Steed 

The River Guard. 
The object of these forts was to give cover from infantry 
fire, to minimise the danger of posts being rushed, and to 
shelter the men. 

They would, of course, owing to their small size and the 
nature of their construction, have been useless against 
artillery, but at this period of the war, the enemy no longer 
had g^uns. They varied much in construction; many of 
those at the detached positions on the Berg were regular 
block-houses ; those around the town consisted mostly of 
a simple parapet of stones or earth with head cover ; all were 
surrounded with barbed wire, and latterly a wire entangle- 
ment connected all the town forts, and ingress or egress 
to or from the town was only possible at certain points. 

Wherever possible a system of signalling, semaphore or 
otherwise, was established between the forts. Outside 
the forts trenches were dug for occupation by the 
garrisons in the unlikely event of artillery fire being 
brought against them. An inner line of defence 
was organised immediately round the Supply Store 
and the central portion of the town itself. This 
consisted of trenches, with barbed wire obstacles in front 
The station of the Ofiicer Commanding troops was at the 
Court House, which was connected by telephone with the 
outposts at Knight* s Farm, Beacon Hill, North Hill and 
Weltevreden, and by telegraph with Newcastle. 

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Great attention was paid to the sanitary conditions of the 
forts, especially during the hot weather, and Officers 
Commanding companies were held responsible that every 
precaution was taken to this effect The shelters in the 
forts were not allowed to be occupied during the day, tents 
being pitched outside for the men to rest and take their 
meals in. These were struck at night so as not to obstruct 
the fire or view in case of attack. All bedding was 
removed daily and well aired. It was doubtless due to 
these precautions that the health of the battalion continued 
so good The companies at the outlying forts and in the 
town were changed periodically. 

The troops were very frequently engaged in the 
protection of convoys, a somewhat irksome duty, and from 
time to time strong patrols, mostly composed of Moimted 
Infantry, moved out to dear farms where Boers were 
reported, or to capture arms or stock. 

On the 1st August, 1901, the strength of the battalion 
was 39 officers, i warrant officer, and 900 other ranks. 
During July there were sent home i sergeant, i drummer 
and 18 privates, invalids, and 7 privates time expired. 

On the 4th August, Lieutenant-Colonel F. D. Lumley 
arrived from India and took over command of the battalion 
and of the troops at Utrecht 

During August, i corporal and 2 privates were invalided 
to England, and i sergeant and 10 privates were sent home 
time expired, and the strength on the ist September, igoi, 
was 39 officers, i warrant officer, and 888 other ranks. 

Major N. W. Bamardiston joined on 31st August on 
appointment as second-in-command of the battalion ; and 
Major Lempriere having been appointed Commandant of 
the General Dep6t at Pietermaritzburg proceeded to take 
up his appointment on the 9th September. 

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On the i8th September a draft joined, strength as tinder, 
to siq^lement the Volunteer Service Company: — 

Lieutenant H. V. Kershaw, 17th Middlesex Rifle 
5 Non-commissioned officers. 

19 Privates. 

For o^venience of payment, etc, this was styled the 
Third Volunteer Company. 

During September, i sergeant and 10 privates, invalids, 
and I sergeant and 8 privates, time expired, were sent to 
England The strength on ist October, 1901, was 38 
officers, I warrant officer, and 867 other ranks, and on the 
1st November 37 officers, i warrant officer, and 845 other 
ranks, 10 invalids, 8 time expired, and 2 prisoners having 
left South Africa dtiring October. 

On the 17th November "C" Company, under Major 
Burton, relieved ** G " Company at Koenigsberg, the latter 
under command of Captain Eustace returning to Umbana. 

On the 1st December, igoi, the strength of the battahon 
stood at 40 officers, i warrant officer and 818 other ranks. 
One sergeant and 23 privates were invalided, and 6 privates 
sent home time expired dtiring November. 

A draft, which was much wanted, arrived tmder command 

of Major C. R. Dyer from England on the 7th December ; 

strength, 2 sergeants, 4 corporals and 169 privates, bringing 

up the strength of the battalion to 35 officers, 

1902. I warrant officer, and 980 other ranks on ist 
Jantiary, 1902. One sergeant, i corporal and 6 
privates, time expired, and 2 invalids went home dtiring 
December, 1901. 

" E " Company, tmder Major Savile, had proceeded in 
December to Qtiagga's Nek, a post on the Drakensberg, 
north-west of Newcastle, where the construction of a new 
block-house line was in progress. 

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On the 6th January, Major Dyer rejoined headquarters 
from Koenigsberg and assumed command of the battalion 
vice Major Bamardiston proceeded to England on appoint- 
as Military Attach6 at Brussels and the Hague. 

The strength of the battalion on ist February, 1902, was 
32 officers, I warrant officer, and 950 other ranks. During 
the preceding month there were sent home i sergeant, and 
13 privates, invalids, i corporal and 10 privates, time 
expired, and 2 privates prisoners. 

On the 1st February, a patrol of the Mounted Infantry 
Company, under Lieutenant J. Whiteman, fell into an 
ambush about five miles from Knight's Farm and sustained 
the following casualties : — 

Killed— No. 51 11 Private W. Blazier. 

Captured (subsequently released) — ^Lieutenant J. White- 
man, Privates Saunders, Shaw, Reeves, Gage, Otton 
and Aldon. 

On the 6th February, another patrol of the Mounted 
Infantry Company, under Lieutenant J. St John Seeker, 
and the garrison of Beacon Hill, were engaged with superior 
numbers of the enemy, and Lieutenant Seeker (who was 
slightly woimded). Sergeant Barton and Private Dignum 
fell into the hands of the enemy, but were released the same 

With reference to the above affairs the following battalion 
order was published on the 13th February : — 

"The Commanding Officer having gone carefully into 
the evidence regarding the capture of a portion of a 
Mounted Infantry patrol under Lieutenant Whiteman on 
the 1st February wishes to place on reccMrd his appreciation 
of the excellent behaviour of all ranks imder trying 
circumstances, and especially of the gallantry displayed by 
Lieutenant Whiteman, No. 5273 Private T. Saunders and 
No. S961 Private J. Gage." 

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On the 1 2th April the following letter, also having 
reference to these captures, from the Adjutant-General, 
Army Headquarters, dated Pretoria, 4th April, 1902, was 
published for information: — 

"ToG.O.C, NataL 

"The proceedings of Courts of Enquiry on the tmder- 
mentioned officers, non-commissioned officers and men were 
forwarded to the War Office on 4th April, 1902. 

" All the officers, non-commissioned officers and men have 
been exonerated by the Courts from any blame as to their 

"Please notify the Officer Commanding the unit to 
which they belong. 

RcgtU No. Rank and Name 

Place and date of 


Lieut J. St John Seeker 

Near Utrecht 


3658 Sergt E. Barton 




5070 Pte. T. Dignum 




Lieut J. Whiteman 




5273 Pte. T. Saunders 




5346 Pte. W. Shaw 




5477 Pte. M. Reeves 




5961 Pte. J. Gage 




6003 Pte. J. W. Otton 




6005 Pte. H. Aldon 




* ■ Lieutenant-General L)^telton considers that Lieutenant 
Whiteman and the men captured with him behaved in a 
plucky manner, and were instrumental in rendering the 
escape of the others possible by sacrificing themselves." 

On the 7th February, Captain Selfe, i sergeant, 3 
corporals, 2 lance-corporals, and 34 privates of the Volun- 
teer Company volunteered for service with the 14th 

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Battalion Mounted Infantry, and left Utrecht to join that 
command on the loth idem. 

Negotiations for surrender on the part of the Boers were 
now commencing, and Lieutenant-Colonel Lumley went to 
Knight's Farm on the isth February to confer with 
General Louis Botha, who came in under a flag of truce. 

The strength of the battalion on 1st March, 1902, was 35 
officers, I warrant officer, and 924 other ranks. There were 
sent home during the preceding month 2 corporals and 17 
privates invalids, and 2 privates time expired 

A draft from the ist Battalion in India, under Lieu- 
tenant H. P. G. Cochran, arrived on the 3rd March: it 
consisted of 4 sergeants, 6 corporals, and 140 privates, and 
a draft of similar strength for the ist Battalion left Utrecht 
for Durban on the following day under command of the 
same officer. 

The strength of the battalion on 1st April, igo2, was 35 
officers, I warrant officer, and 897 other ranks. During 
March i sergeant and 17 privates, invalids, and 2 sergeants 
and 6 privates, time expired, were sent home.* 

On the 29th May the Second Volunteer Company, under 
Lieutenant Williams, left Utrecht for Durban, en route for 
England. They sailed from Durban in the ss. " Syria " on 
20th June. 

On the 1st June a telegram was received from the 
Brigade-Major, Newcastle, conveying the joyful news that 
Peace had been signed on the previous night 

To celebrate the occasion, every man in the command 
was allowed to draw an3rthing he wished for at the Field 
Force Canteen up to a value of one shilling and sixpence. 

On the 2nd June urgent orders were received to select 

*Ftom the date of landiiig in South Africa, to the Slat M aieh. 1902, 25 aergeanta. S 
dmmmen. and 488 rank and file were faiTalided home. 


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immediately from the battalion a representative detach- 
ment of I officer, 3 non-commissioned officers, and / 
privates (Reservists) to be present at the Coronation of 
His Majesty King Edward The men to represent tmits 
were to be selected for good and distinguished conduct in 
the field, and were to proceed at once to Cape Town to 
embark on the " Bavarian." 

The undernamed were selected, and left Utrecht at 9 
p.m on the same day (the order having been received about 
6 p.m) : — 

Lieutenant H. E. Welch. 

No. 3150 Sergeant H. Lunn. 

No. 3357 Sergeant E. Tilley. 

No. 3658 Sergeant E. Bartoa 

No. 1579 Private W. Read. 

No. 2665 Private H. Holdway. 

No. 2716 Private A. Thora 

No. 2756 Private W. Smith. 

No. 2854 Private S. Gofif. 

No. 3241 Private A. Drake. 

No. 7293 Private J. F. Bartram. 

The following telegram was received by Officer Com- 
manding Troops, Utrecht, from Lord Kitchener, on 3rd 
June : — 

''2nd June. Please conmiunicate to your troops the 
following gracious message which I have received from 
His Majesty the Kix^, and for which I have thanked him 
in the name of all concerned. Begins — ^'Heartiest 
congratulations on the termination of hostilities. I also 
congratulate my brave troops under your command for 
having brought this long and difficult campaign to so 
glorious and successful a conclusion.' Ends.'' 

Telegrams from the Secretary of State for War, and 

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from His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, were also 
received by Lord Kitchener, and communicated to the 

On the 2ist June, « A," " B," '' D," and " G " Companies, 
and those non-commissioned officers and men of " F " and 
" H " Companies eligible to be sent home on demobiliza- 
tion, the whole under Major C R. Dyer, proceeded to 
Newcastle, and on the following day Lieutenant-Colonel F. 
D. Lumley resumed command of the battalion, having 
handed over the command of Utrecht 

Lord Kitchener issued a valedictory order on leaving 
South Africa on the 23rd June, and again sent a telegram 
to Brigadier-General J. F. Bum-Murdoch, C.B. (published 
in Newcastle Sub-District Orders of 24th June), thanking 
all ranks and wishing all good-bye and good luck. He was 
succeeded in the command of the troops in South Africa 
by Lieutenant-General the Hoa N. G. Lyttelton, C.B., 
formerly commanding the Natal District— 4ieadquarters 

Lieutenant-Colonel Lumley published the following 
battalion order on the departure for home of the first party 
of Reservists and time expired men on 29th Jime : — 

** The Commanding Officer deeply r^prets he cannot be 
with the regiment to say good-bye to the first draft for 
home. He desires to convey to them his sense of their 
admirable conduct while he has had the honour to command 
them, and to wish them God-speed and best good luck on 
their return to England." 

One hundred non-commissioned officers and men, under 
Major G. W. W. Savile, D.S.O., and Captain G. W. Bentlcy, 
proceeded to England in the ss. '' Arundel Castle " on ist 
August, and 100 men, under Majors L. G. Oliver and R. 
de H, Burton, in the ss. " Goth " on the following day. 

In Battalion Orders of 14th August was published a 

N 2 

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letter from Field-Marshal Earl Roberts, V.C, KG., K.P^ 
G.C.B., G.C.S.I., G.CLE., Commander-in-Chief, trans- 
mitting copies of communications received by him from the 
Lord Chancellor and the Speaker of the House of 
Commons, conveying the thanks of Parliament to His 
Majesty's Forces for their gallant and distinguished 
services during the late war, and expressing their admira- 
tion of the valour, devotion, and conduct of those officers 
and men who perished during the campaign in the service 
of the Empire, and their deep sympathy with the relatives 
and friends. Lord Roberts also forwarded copies of his 
replies thereto, and requested all might be communicated 
to the troops. 

On the same day was also published the King's message 
to his people on the eve of his Coronation. 

On the i6th August, i6o non-commissioned officers and 
men, under Captain C. E. Pemberton and Lieutenant N. E. 
G. Willoughby, proceeded to Durban and embarked for 
England in the ss. '' Soudan " on demobilization, and on the 
1st September the Mounted Infantry Companies of the 3rd 
and 4th Battalions, under Captain G. W. Haslehust, which 
had been serving with the 21st Battalion Mounted Infantry, 
were taken on the strength of the battalioa 

Lieutenant J. Whiteman and 50 non-commissioned 
officers and men sailed from Durban on 23rd October in 
the ss. ''Montrose," en route to join the ist Battalion in 
India. Lieutenant Whiteman returned after handing over 
the draft, and rejoined on 25th December, 1902. 

On 1st December Captain H. N. Blakeney, D.S.O., 
assumed command of the battalion, vice Lieutenant- 
Colonel F. D. Lumley, proceeding to England on leave of 
absence, and on 9th December Major R. de H. Burton; who 
returned from leave of absence, took over command from 
Captain Blakeney. 

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The foUowing Battalion Order was published on nth 
December : — 

" The Commanding Officer wishes to bring to notice of 
an ranks in the battalion the foUowing : — 

" Major-General R. S. R. Fetherstonhaugh, CB., Com- 
manding Natal District, yesterday told me the battalion 
was the best he had, and expressed his satisfaction at the 
healthy appearance and state of the men, due to their own 
conduct and exertions. 

" The General authorised me to make this known, which 
I do with much pleasure." 

On the 3rd January, 1903, a notification was 
1903. received that the battalion would embark at 
Durban on H.M.T. " StaflFordshire " on the 25th 
January for conveyance to England. 

The battalion embarked on 23rd January, and sailed the 
following day (the third anniversary of Spion Kop), strength 
as under: — 

Major and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel G. B. Lempriere 

(in command). 
Major R. de H. Btuton. 
Major H. M. Eustace, D.S.O. 
Captain C. E. Pemberton. 
Lieutenant W. A Stewart 
Lieutenant N. E. G. Willoughby. 
Lieutenant C. B. Thompson. 
Lieutenant J. Whiteman. 
Lieutenant D. W. Churchill 
Lieutenant D. C. Owen. 
Second-Lieutenant W. H. Samuel 
Second-Lieutenant C A S. Page. 
Second-Lieutenant A. M. O. A. Passii^ham. 
Second-Lieutenant R. N. Lefroy. 

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Captain and Brevet Major and Adjutant H. Storr. 

Lieutenant and Quartennaster F. AUam. 

Se^eant-Major F. S. Steed 

44 Sergeants. 

9 Drummers. 

41 Corporals. 

260 Privates. 

I Woman. 

On leaving Durban Harbour an Austrian man-of-war 
manned }rards, and her band played the British National 
Anthem and the crew gave three hearty cheers. The band 
on board the " Staffordshire," composed of our own and 
that of the Royal Scots Fusiliers (a battalion of which 
regiment, as also of the Connaught Rangers, was on board) 
played the Austrian hymn, and our men also cheered. 

The " Staffordshire " arrived at Southampton after a fine 
passage on the morning of the i6th February, 1903, and the 
troops immediately disembarked Lieutenant - General 
Henry Kent, the colonel of the raiment, welcomed his old 
battalion, and Lieutenant-Colonel Lempriere called for 
three cheers — ^and another — ^for the General^ which were 
heartily givea 

The battalion then entrained for Hounslow. 

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In the latter half of 1900 several corps of Mounted 
Infantry were formed The battalion furnished detach- 
ments for two of these, viz. i the 5th Division Mounted 
Infantry, and the 14th Battalion Mounted Infantry, in 
addition to the regimental company of Mounted Infantry. 

The number of mounted men thus furnished by the 
battalion aggregated considerably over 200, and as the 
various Mounted Infantry detachments had to be main- 
tained at their full strength, this constituted a serious drain 
on the companies of the battalion, especially during the last 
year of the war. 

The 5th Division Mounted Infantry consisted of four 
companies formed from the battalions in the loth and nth 
Brigades, which comprised the sth Division It was 
employed almost entirely in the South-Eastem Transvaal 
and along the Zululand border. 

The detachment furnished by the battalion consisted of 
two officers (Lieutenant P. M. Large and Second- 
Lieutenant H. M. Meyler), two sergeants, five corporals, nine 
lance-corporals, two drummers and 73 privates, and formed 
part of "C" Company. The detachment proceeded to 
Volksrust to join the 5th Division Mounted Infantry on 17th 
August, I goo. 

In an action near Blood River on 17th March, 1901, the 

«Fkom Ofleitl RMOcdt of BtttaUon. 

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company lost one man killed (No. 5103 Private W. Furlong) 
and had two men slightly wounded (No. 3166 Private S. 
Knight and No. 5719 Private F. Pay). 

This company took an active part in the battle at Mount 
Prospect (Zululand) and the defence ot Fort Itala on 26th 
September, 1901. In this action, in which the Boers 
suffered a very severe defeat, some 80 men of the battalion 
were present under command of Captain P. M. Lai^e. 
Their casualties were : — 

Killed— No. 5552 Private J. H. Davy. 
Wounded — ^No. 3162 Private J. Davis. No. 5197 Private 
W. Taylor. 

This company was subsequently amalgamated with the 
Regimental Mounted Infantry Company about September, 
1902, and formed part of the loth Battalion Mounted 
Infantry stationed at Vryheid. It rejoined the battalion in 
January, 1903. 

The 14th Battalion Moimted Infanby formed part of the 
5th Mounted Infantry Corps, and was formed in November, 
1900. The detachment furnished by the battalion to the 
14th Battalion Mounted Infantry, consisted of two officers 
(Second-Lieutenants B. A. Moeller and H. P. Hilton), 2 
sergeants, 2 corporals, i drmnmer, and 45 privates, and left 
Newcastle on 24th November, 1900, arriving at Pretoria 
on 26th. Here it formed (with a detachment of the 
Manchester Regiment) No. 2 Company, 14th Battalion 
Mounted Infantry, under command of Major Heigham, East 
Yorks Regiment, who, when inspecting the company on 
4th December, congratulated the men on their smartness 
and said they were the best equipped lot who had yet come 
up. The detachment did not all receive their horses until 
28th December, but Lieutenants Moeller and Hilton with 
a few men took part in the operations west of Pretoria 

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between the 13th and 36th December, igcx), under 
Brigadier-General R. A. P. Qeinents, D.S.O. 

The 14th Battalion Mounted Infantry (with the 13th 
Battalion Mounted Infantry), under command of Colonel 
Jenner, D.S.O., Rifle Brigade, took part in the operations 
in the country west of Pretoria during January, 1901, and on 
the 23rd of that month started to participate in the great 
sweeping movement under General Sir J. D. P. French, 
K.C.B., in the Eastern and South-Eastem Transvaal down 
to the Zululand border, lasting till the end of March and 
remarkable for the great hardships endured owing to the 
natural difficulties of the country, the continuous rain, and 
die absence of rations. 

At Hollands Farm, Transvaal (not far from Standerton), 
the 14th Battalion Mounted Infantry suffered very severely 
in an action with the Boers on the 19th December, 1901, 
the detachment from the Middlesex R^;iment losing one 
man killed (No. 3013 Private T. W. Nash) and Lieutenant 
B. A. W. C. Moeller, dangerously wounded He died of his 
wounds on the 23rd December, in No. 17 General Hospital 
at Standerton. 

The battalion sustained a heavy loss in the death of this 
zealous and promising young officer. 

The movements of the R^^ental Company of Mounted 
Infantry (F) have been chronicled with those of the other 
companies of the battalion. 

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The following officers and men were mentioned in the 
despatches published in the " London Gazette *' of the 8th 
February, 1901 z — 

Brevet-Colonel A W. Hill. 
Major G. B. Lempriere. 
Major G. W. W. Savile. 
Lieutenant and Adjutant H. F. MacEwan 
(who carried a wounded private of the Scottish Rifles out of 
action under heavy fire at Spion Kop). 

No. 2178 Private E. Wischhusen, who picked up a live 
shell which had fallen among the troops at Spion Kop and 
threw it over the diff. 

No. 2574 Private (Lance-Corporal) J. E. B. Gilmore, who 
collected and took command of a number of men who were 
without officers at Spion Kop. 

No. 3491 Private W. Boyd, for an act similar to the above 
at Spion Kop. 

The following rewards were published in the " London 
Gazette," dated 19th April, 1901, to bear date 29tb 
November, 1900 : — 

Brevet-Colonel A. W. Hill to be a Companion of the 
Most Honourable Order of the Bath. 

Major G. W. W. Savile to be a Companion of the 
Distinguished Service Order. 

The following to have the medal for Distinguished 
Service in the Field : — 

No. 3491 Private W. Boyd. 

No. 2574 Private J. E. B. GiUnore. 

•From Official Records of Battalioo. 

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The following officers, non-ooxmnissioned officers and men 
were mentioned in the despatches published in the " London 
Gazette " of the loth September, 1901 : — 

Major N. J. R. Blake. 

Major W. Scott-MoncriefiF. 

Major G. B. Lempriere. 

Captain H. M. Eustace. 

Captain C. E. Pemberton. 

Captain H. N. Blakeney. 

Captain G. A. Bridgman. 

Captain C. S. Roche (17th Middlesex Volunteer Rifles). 

Lieutenant D. C. Percy Smith. 

Lieutenant and Quartermaster T. Piper. 

No. 656 Quartermaster-Sergeant F. Allam. 

No. 1404 Quartermaster - Sergeant (Orderly - Room-Ser- 
geant) E. H. Amc»r. 

No. 1595 Colour-Sergeant J. Bettdey. 

No. 2245 Colour-Sergeant R. E. Evans. 

No. 2587 Colour-Sergeant J. Glass. 

No. 2516 Colour-Sergeant W. J. Jack 

No. 2658 Sergeant E. Barton. 

No. 2738 Sergeant A. E. Foster (killed in action). 

No. 4573 Sergeant P. Gray. 

No. 2994 Sergeant F. Foster. 

No. 3019 Sergeant W. Highton. 

No. 2618 Sergeant A Morey. 

No. 2143 Sergeant J. Murphy (killed in action). 

No. 3193 Sergeant H. A. Wiemers. 

No. 3904 Sergeant W. Willcox. 

No. 5023 Corporal E. Davenport 

Na 5503 Lance-Corporal W. H. Stickland 

No. 2854 Private S. GoflF. 

No. 2922 Private W. C. Miller. 

No. 2178 Private E. Wischhusen. 

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The following rewards were published in the '* London 
Gazette " of the 27th September, 1901, to bear date 29th 
November, 1900 : — 

To be Companions of the Distinguished Service 
Order: — 

Major N. J. R. Blake. 

Captain H. M. Eustace. 
Captain H. N. Blakeney. 
Lieutenant D. C. Percy Smith. 
To be Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel : — 

Major G. B. Lempriere. 
To have the medal for Distinguished Conduct in the 

No. 656 Quartermaster-Sergeant F. Allam. 
No. 1595 Colour-Sergeant J. Betteley. 
No. 2245 Colour-Sergeant R. E. Evans. 
No. 3019 Sergeant W. Highton. 
No. 3904 Sergeant W. Willcox. 
No. 5503 Lance-Corporal W. H. Sticktand. 
No. 2178 Private E. Wischhusen. 
The following officers, warrant officers, and non- 
commissioned officers were mentioned in the despatches 
published in the "London Gazette" of the 29th July, 
1902: — 

Lieutenant-Colonel F. D. Lumley. 
Major R. de H. Burtoa 
Captain and Adjutant H. Storr. 
Captain P. M. Large. 
Lieutenant J. Whitemaa 
No. 1078 Sergeant-Major F. S. Steed. 
No. 6435 Colour-Sergeant N. A. L. Bailey. 
No. 2752 Colour-Sergeant B. G. Watkins 
(who was brought to the notice of the General Commanding- 
in-Chief for skill and prompt action at Beacon Hill, whereby 
he prevented the capture of a patrol). 

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No. 2323 Colour-Sergeant A G. Andrews. 
No. 6535 Farrier-Sergeant A. Blakeston. 

The following rewards were published in the " London 
Gazette "of the 31st October, 1902, to bear date 22nd 
August, 1902: — 

Lieutenant-Colonel F. D. Lumley to be a Companion of 
the Most Honourable Order of the Bath. 

Captain H. Storr to be Brevet-Major. 

Sergeant-Major F. S. Steed to have the medal for 
Distinguished Service in the Field. 

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On the agth May, 1906, a memorial tablet, inscribed with 
the names of the six officers and 107 non-commissioned 
officers and men who had lost their lives while serving with 
the battalion in South Africa, was unveiled in the Crypt of 
St Paul's Cathedral, in the presence of a number of past 
and present officers and soldiers of the Middlesex Regi- 
ment, by Lieutenant-Gencral Kent, who, in committing 
the memorial to the charge of the Dean and Chapter, 
addressed those present as follows : — 

"We are met together on this solemn occasion by the 
kind permission of the Dean and Chapter of this glorious 
Cathedral, for which I beg to thank them most gratefully, 
to dedicate, and to consecrate, a memorial to our dear 
departed comrades of the 2nd Battalion, the Duke of 
Cambridge's Own (Middlesex Regiment) — ^the old 77th 
(East Middlesex) Regiment, of Peninsular and Crimean 
fame — ^who lost their lives in the war in South Africa. 

" And what can be said of them more than what I know 
the dear, good fellows would like me, the old Colonel, 
above all, to say of them — ^f or being dead they yet speak — 
that they nobly did their duty, that they died a soldier's 
death, the most honourable of all deaths ; that they died for 
their Queen and King and country and regiment ; that they 
died for the honour and glory of old England ; that they 
died that this proud nation should not perish in South 
Africa, but that Bper and Briton should live together as 
friends and not enemies under one Sovereign, one Empire, 
one Flag, the glorious Flag of old England, the emblem of 
all that is lovely and of good report The history of the 

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South African War • • 
Memorial in the Crypt, 
St. Paul's Cathedral. 

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war is there to show that the share taken by the 2nd 
Battalion of the Middlesex Regiment at Spion Kop, at the 
Relief of Ladysmith, and in all the subsequent actions of 
the war, was no inglorious one. What man could do was 
done by these brave, steady men right fearlessly and well ; 
and the good Work that they did in South Africa lives after 
them, and a grateful and patriotic country will not willingly 
let the memory of it die. 

" I have now to ask the Dean and Chapter to be good 
enough to accept and take charge of this memorial, which 
records the names of six officers and 107 non-commissioned 
officers and men of the 2nd Battalion of the Duke of 
Cambridge's Own (Middlesex R^ment) who lost their 
lives in the South African War, a grievous loss to us, and I 
would most gratefully thank the Dean and Chapter of St 
Paul's Cathedral for permitting us to place it on the sacred 
walls of this historic Crypt, hallowed by the dust of Nelson, 
and Wellington, and Picton, who was our Colonel, the 
Colonel of the 77th (East Middlesex) Regiment, when he 
foremost fighting fell at Waterloo, that tremendous battle, 
that battle of giants, which gave peace to distracted 
Europe for nearly 40 years." 

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